From Big Medical Encyclopedia

LYMPHOLOGY (Latin lympha pure water, moisture + grech, logos the doctrine) — the section of angiology studying a structure, functions and diseases of lymphatic system. Bases of L. as sciences were put in a classical research of G. Aselli «De lactibus sive lacteis venis», a cut was published in 1627. However long before it anatomists found «white vessels», descriptions to-rykh are provided by Hippocrates, Gerofil, Erazistrat; the subsequent references of so-called lacteal channels are available in Ibn-Sina's works.

For a research limf, vessels in anatomic drugs for the first time in 1793 Nuck suggested to inject them mercury; the Russian researchers used for identification limf, vessels ink (N. F. Vysotsky, 1878), carminic paints (And. II. Sikorsky, 1870 — 1872); also water solutions of ink, India ink, solutions of asphalt in benzene, chloroform, turpentine, the painted gelatinous weight were at different times applied. By means of the injection mass of Gerota and her subsequent modifications offered in 1896 (F. A. Stefanis, 1902 1905) in-depth anatomic studies limf, systems became possible. To anatomic studying limf, systems were devoted researches of D. A. Zhdanov, B. V. Ognev, M. G. Prives, M. S. Spirov and their employees; results of anatomic researches are stated in Bartels's monographs (P. Bartels, 1909), G. M. Iosifova (1914), Ruvyer (H. Rouviere, 1932), D. A. Zhdanova (1940, 1945, 1952), Kampmeyera (O. to Kampmeier, 1969), Yoffi, Curtice (J. M of Yoffey, F. Page of Courtice), etc., and also in Mascagni's atlases (P. Mascagni, 1787), to Sappa (M. Ph. Page of Sappey, 1885), B. N. Uskova (1946), A. I. Sviridova (1966).

The subanatomic research limf, systems by means of a magnifying glass and stereoscopic is widely applied microscope (see) using a macromicroscopic technique (see. Macromicroscopy ), offered for the first time in 1937 by P. Vorobyov. Studying of structure and hl. obr. very tectonics limf, systems in bodies it is carried out by a stereoscopic research in the thick cuts of the big area which are brightened up by Shpaltegolts's method (1910, 1914) after filling limf. vessels various injection masses.

Pilot studies on studying collateral limf, ways, changes in limf, system under the influence of ionizing radiation, physiotherapeutic influences, physical. loadings, accelerations are etc. carried out from 20th 20 century. Originally at the same time the visual analysis macromicroscopic and rentgenol, data was used; later were developed and techniques of determination of speed of a lymph flow, cellular and chemical structure of a lymph, tonometry in various departments limf, systems, the intersticial pressure and speed of a resorption (paints, protein, radionuclides) are applied, limfografiya (see). Use in L. a submicroscopy allowed to open a thin structure limf, capillaries of heart, lungs, a small intestine of the person and nek-ry bodies a lab. animals.

Pathophysiological and pathoanatomical researches limf, systems develop from the middle of the 50th of 20 century and are directed to studying of adaptation reorganization and regeneration absorbent vessels (see), lymphangiectasias (see), lymphostasis (see), chyle ascites, chylous hydrothorax (see), cysts limf, vessels, chylurias (see), lymphorrheas (see), chyle reflux; are studied pathology chest channel (see), defeats limf, systems at tumors, a circulatory unefficiency, etc.

A systematic wedge, researches limf, systems began after the offer of a technique of a direct limfografiya; are applied fiziol., rentgenol., tracer techniques of a research. In a wedge, practice ways of catheterization of a chest channel (see), by Endo lymphatic himio-and radiotheraphy, operational treatment are used elephantiasis (see). B. V. Petrovsky and V. S. Krylov (1978), M. N. Anichkov and V. Ya. Zolotarevsky (1978) at hron, a lymphostasis apply imposing of a limfovenozny anastomosis, using the equipment microsurgery (see). Treatment of specific and nonspecific inflammatory processes in limf, vessels and nodes remains still serious problem (see. Lymphadenitis , Limfangiit ), and also mitigation of consequences of damages large limf, the vessels which are followed by a considerable lymphorrhea.

The researches conducted in the area L., were repeatedly discussed at the international and domestic conferences and symposiums; there is the international association of limfolog, the Lymphology magazine (Germany), nek-ry questions L is issued. are covered in domestic medical magazines.

Bibliography: Zhdanov D. A. General anatomy and physiology of lymphatic system, L., 1952, bibliogr.; 3 e r and - N about D. D. General pathology of lymphatic system, Kiev, 1974; Iosifov G. of m. Lymphatic system of the person, Tomsk, 1914; P r and in e with M. G. Rentgenografiya of lymphatic system (limforentgenografiya), L., 1948, bibliogr.; Etingenl. E. ikrayeva. B. The bibliography of domestic works on lymphatic system, Stalinabad, 1959, Additions 1 — 4, Dushanbe, 1966 — 1976; &Rusznyk I., F 1 d i M. yo. S z and-b G. Limphologie, Budapest, 1969, Bibliogr.; S ap in M. R. et B o r-z i a k E. I. Anatomie du systeme lymphati que de rhomme, Oran, 1976; Y o f-f e y J. M of ampere-second of o u of of t i with e F. C. Lymphatics, lymph and the lymphomyeloid complex, L. — N. Y., 1970.

D. D. Zerbino.