From Big Medical Encyclopedia

LONGEVITY — the social and biological phenomenon which is characterized by survivorship of the person till high age boundaries. According to the decision made on the All-Union symposium of gerontologists in Leningrad (1962) and at the European seminar of WHO in Kiev (1963), counting of longevity is conducted from 90 years, in some statistical and gerontol. researches since 100 years.

To set upper limits of the actual longevity extremely difficult since very old men often are mistaken in determination of the age. The estimated record of D. in the USSR belongs to Azerbaijanian Shirali Muslimov who lived up to 168 years.

Considerable expressiveness of the adaptive mechanisms providing fiziol is the cornerstone of longevity. nature of aging. Change of the main fiziol, systems happens smoothly, the condition of a row of systems of an organism is similar in many parameters to those at persons of younger age, napr, morfol, and biochemical composition of blood, some indicators of a condition of cardiovascular, endocrine systems, c. N of page. As a rule, long-livers (macrobiotas) have strong, balanced type of century of N of. Safety intellectual and physical is characteristic of them. forces, certain activity and working capacity, good memory, interest in events and phenomena of the world around, known resistance to stressful situations.

Long-livers of a malovospriimchiva to infectious and noninfectious diseases, their long genital period, intensive fertility is noted. So, according to B. G. Kindarov (1973), at the birth of the last child the inspected long-livers of Chechen-Ingushetia had an age at men of 69 —-70 years, women have 55 — 58 years; the median number of the children who were born live made 7,1. The similar materials collected by G. Stoynev (1972) show that almost every sixth Bulgarian centenary inhabitant had 10 and more children.

In the USSR successfully develops both social and demographic, and Kliniko-fiziol, the direction in studying of problems D. Since 1937 long-livers were inspected in Abkhazia, Khakassia, various districts of Georgia, in Ukraine, in Dagestan, in Altai etc. In 1960 — 1963 in 7 federal republics under the general management Ying-that gerontology of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences examination of St. 40 thousand persons at the age of 80 years is conducted and is more senior, from them more than 9 thousand at the age of 90 years and are more senior. As a result of the analysis of the obtained data the geography of longevity to the USSR, need of long-livers for the medico-social help is specified, some factors promoting D.

Ustanovleno that long-livers represent category of people with peculiar features not only of health, but also a way of life are studied. Most of them lived all the life in rural areas that it defined conditions, style of their life, character of occupations. Almost on 2/3 are peasants whose half continued to work already at advanced age. They early took a labor way and very late left it, almost without changing occupations.

The strong vital stereotype, moderation in all vital manifestations, failure from addictions, the adjusted safe long family life is characteristic of long-livers. About 44% of the inspected men and 31% of women are almost healthy.

Many gerontologists consider that considerable potentialitys of long-livers to reach high age and to keep at the same time viability are caused genetically. However not less important role in D.'s implementation belongs to social factors and a way of life of the population.

For studying of features of an organism of long-livers, entities of the phenomenon of D. and factors influencing it are applied along with various Kliniko-fiziol., biochemical and morfol, methods some special methods of a research: genealogical researches for family D.'s definition, twin method (see) for assessment of hereditary and environmental influences, creation of correlation tables and tables of mortality for causes of death for certain groups of the population for the purpose of establishment of dependence between the nature of pathology of parents and children, epidemiol. and sotsiol. researches for identification of a ratio of hereditary, social and natural factors.

The research of a problem D. provides studying of environmental factors and a way of life of the population, and also carrying out the measures promoting implementation of hereditary predisposition to long life, lengthening of the period of working capacity and preservation of a healthy, active old age.

The number of the socio-economic factors influencing level D. includes conditions and the nature of work, material security, character of food and living conditions, cultural level and a way of life of the population, degree and quality of satisfaction of his need for medical aid, etc. These factors are interconnected with natural factors and heredity, however their value and a ratio in various countries or districts of the globe can be various. Considerable territorial features of are explained by it.

Mean prevalence of this phenomenon among the population of this or that country by level D. in general, its certain districts or separate categories of its inhabitants. For assessment of level D. the indicator of a share of persons of long age (80, 90 or 100 years and are more senior) in the total number of the population was accepted. Then broad application was found by advanced system of indicators of D., on a cut define an index of longevity and a survival coefficient.

The index of longevity, the or longevity (OL), determine by materials of a population census; it represents the relation of population of 80 (90) years and is more senior (+) to population of 60 years and is more senior, increased for 1000:

IDES (‰) = [N80+(90+)]*1000/N60+, where N - population of a certain age.

The index of longevity in much smaller measure is exposed to influence of level of birth rate and migration, than ud. weight long in the total number of the population. The Survival Coefficient (SC) is defined on the basis of parameters of tables of mortality (see. Life expectancy ) as the relation of number living up to 80 (90) years to number living up to 60 years, expressed as a percentage — N80 (90): N60, in %.

During the All-Union population census of 1970 in the USSR 297,1 thousand persons at the age of 90 years are registered and are more senior (including 19,3 thousand persons of 100 years and are more senior). With considerable distribution of D.

Transcaucasia, the North Caucasus, some Regions of Siberia and Central Asia are among the regions of the USSR. Zones of the most high level of longevity (counting of longevity from 90 years) are Nakhchivan the ASSR (IDES 56,1), Nagorno-Karabakh (IDES 54,0) and Mountain and Badakhshanskaya (IDES 41,1) autonomous regions, Dagestan ASSR (IDES 37,7), Chechen-Ingush ASSR the GUIDE 30,6) and the Abkhaz ASSR (IDES 28.2).

Fluctuations of level of D. are quite big worldwide. Rather high >during the counting of longevity from 80 years) it are noted ID(100 of % generally in economically developed states. In the countries which suffered huge human losses and significant economic damage and the health of the population is affected by burdens of war (Poland, Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Hungary, Germany, Japan, etc.), D.'s indicators usually lower. In a number of the states of Asia and Africa level D., as a rule, very low. In the USA more high level of D. is noted among the white population.

D.'s indicators are various among urban and country people, among men and women is (tab.). Essential changes in level D. for rather short interval of time testify to a real possibility of impact on this phenomenon by improvement of social and economic living conditions and holding purposeful actions, in the state and individual order. The Soviet state, showing continuous care of the benefit of workers, carries out effective measures on increase in material well-being, cultural level, improvement of working and domestic conditions, improvement medical, a dignity. - hens. and social service of the population that promotes the fullest satisfaction physical. and spiritual needs of elderly and old people, to the prevention of a senilism and active D.'s achievement

See also Geriatrics , Gerogigiyena .

Table. CHANGE of the INDEX of LONGEVITY (IL) of the POPULATION of the USSR (according to the CENSUS of 1959 and 1970)

Bibliography: Berdyshev G. D. Ekologo-genetichesky factors of aging and longevity, L., 1968, bibliogr.; r m of e to M. D. Gerontologiya — the doctrine about an old age and longevity, the lane with horvatsk., M., 1964; Davydovsky I. V. Gerontology, M., 1966; Long-livers, Clinical and social and hygienic trials, Gerontology and geriatrics, Year-book, 1972, Kiev, 1973; Fundamentals of gerontology, under the editorship of D.F. Chebotaryov idr., page 502, M., 1969; P and c x e of l and Ur and G. 3. Some social and hygienic factors of longevity of persons at the age of 100 years are also more senior, the Gigabyte. and dignity., No. 7, page 67, 1968: Problems of aging and longevity, under the editorship of V. F. Mirek, page 7, M., 1966; The Old age, under the editorship of. A. A. Bogomoltsa, Kiev, 1939; Frenkel 3. G. Lengthening of life and active old age, M., 1949; Chebotaryov D. F. and Sachu to H. H. Medical and sanitary inspection of long people in the USSR, Vestn. USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, No. 6, page 13, 1964; Palmo-г e E. Century of Physical, mental, and social factors in predicting longevity, Gerontologist, v. 9, p. 103, 1969.

H. H. Sachuk.