At the enterprises L. the item is carried out primary preparation of wood. Main enterprise L. the item — logging enterprise. Production tekhnol. process includes felling works, removal of the wood and its warehousing. The wood to consumers railway transport, vessels is delivered or it is alloyed on water. Logging are conducted continuously during the whole year, in various natural and climatic conditions in this connection work of lumberers has many specific features. In the winter low temperature in combination with high humidity and strong winds contributes to overcooling, in the summer insolation, high temperature and humidity, physical. loading can lead to overheating. During rains and snow melting at workers clothes, footwear strongly become wet. In spring and first summer months workers are attacked mites (see), and throughout the warm period — midges (see). At a roll, bucking of trees, a stump of boughs energy expenditure averages from 4,5 to 10 kcal/min. From the general labor costs felling works make 5 — 10%, wood-yard — 15 — 20%, auxiliary — 40 — 45%. At all operations at felling works the electromotor and petrolmotor saws generating are used noise (see) and vibration (see).
In structure of incidence rather big specific weight is occupied by diseases of a respiratory organs, a peripheral nervous system, digestive organs, skin and hypodermic cellulose, a musculoskeletal system and blood circulation. Injuries are more often observed among valshchik of the wood, brushers, tractor operators-trelevshchikov, chokerovshchik, raskryazhevshchik, sorters stackers.
Recreational actions in L. items shall have complex character. Persons of vibrodangerous professions require constant performance of physiologically reasonable mode of work and observance of other requirements of prevention of vibration diseases (see. Vibration disease ). For the prevention of overcooling it is necessary to have the mobile warmed rooms (cars, lodges on wheels or on runners) with obligatory devices for drying of clothes, footwear and mittens. For reduction of heatlosses in the course of work it is necessary to use winter overalls like «Wood». In spring and summer time for the prevention of diseases of a tick-borne encephalitis of workers it is necessary to provide with protective clothes with the closed collar fitting a neck, cuffs on elastic bands and a hood tightly; in March — April to carry out encephalitis inoculations. For protection against midges use a special protivognusovy suit. It is also necessary to apply repellents (see), to-rye are applied on skin and clothes with observance of the established rules. In preservation of health of lumberers regular food hot food has an important role, to-ruyu it is necessary to deliver in thermoses directly to working sites, in crews, mobile dining rooms of the PS-16 type, etc. are convenient for this purpose. For to lay down. - professional, service of workers at large logging enterprises are created medical and sanitary parts (see), the including hospitals and out-patient and polyclinic institutions. It is necessary to train workers in rules of rendering most and mutual assistance, to provide crews with first-aid kits, on timber rafting to create teams of rescuers.
Selection of workers in L. the item is made taking into account features and specifics of work in the wood. For work after a roll of the wood, to alloy, transportation and roughing-out of wood by the general contraindications all forms of active tuberculosis, permanent deformations of the bone and joint device, the expressed phlebectasia, thrombophlebitis of the lower extremities, hemorrhoids with frequent aggravations and bleeding, hernias, a peptic ulcer of a stomach and duodenum, hron, diseases of a liver and a gall bladder with frequent aggravations, the expressed emphysema of lungs, a pneumosclerosis, hron, the bronchitis, bronchial asthma, an idiopathic hypertensia of the II—III stage, an obliterating endarteritis, organic heart diseases and vessels having bent to a decompensation, diseases of a peripheral nervous system with frustration of motive or sensitive spheres, organic diseases of c are. N page, glaucoma and row other. The teenagers who did not reach 18-year age are forbidden to work with valshchik of the wood, brushers, raskryazhevshchik, trelevshchik, chokerovshchik, stackers of wood. Such professions as a valshchik of the wood, the woodcutter, a navalshchik-svalshchik of wood, a chokerovshchik, a stacker of wood, a bonovshchik, the raftsman of the wood, the former of rafts are contraindicated to women.
Periodic medical examinations are carried out in the order provided by the relevant resolutions (see. Medical examination ).
Bibliography: Goldman E. I. Occupational health in the logging industry, M., 1977, bibliogr.; L. G. Cossacks. Increase in safety of logging processes, M., 1977, bibliogr.; To at d e of l and N of an E. N and Bales of N and A. P. Occupational health and industrial hygiene at the enterprises of the logging industry, Arkhangelsk, 1971, bibliogr.; T e of N d l of e r M.M. and Karpunichev N. V. Means of ensuring of safety at the logging and woodworking enterprises, M., 1977, bibliogr.; Yu r to and R. V. N, etc. Ways of increase in efficiency of logging production, M., 1977, bibliogr.
M. I. Dracheva, S. P. Speransky.