From Big Medical Encyclopedia

LIVEDO (Latin. livedo bruise) — the morbid condition of skin which is characterized by its cyanotic coloring at the expense of the mesh or treelike drawing of the translucent vessels which are in a condition of a passive hyperemia. Allocate several wedge, kinds of the LIVEDO.

L. racemosa can develop at a system lupus erythematosus, a nodular periarteritis, a dermatomyositis, an indurative erythema, syphilis (especially tertiary and late inborn), tuberculosis, dysentery, malaria, hron, tonsillitis, hron, intoxications (alcoholism), tumors, and also at hypotension, arteriosclerosis, heart diseases. Patogistologiya: proliferation of cells of an internal cover of arterioles and small veins of skin x and hypodermic cellulose, leading sometimes to an obliteration of a gleam of vessels; perivascular infiltration, fibrosis of a derma. It is clinically characterized various size it is treelike the branching spots of cyanotic-red color without peeling. For a number of years they remain invariable, do not disappear from heat, and during the cooling become more noticeable. In their zone necroses of skin, an ulceration are possible. It is observed almost only at women on extensor surfaces of extremities, buttocks.

L. racemosa universalis develops on all integument. Arises usually in several months after the injury of a skull which is followed by a loss of consciousness. Along with L. encephalitis develops, mental disorders develop.

L. reticularis a frigore (s. cutis marmorata, 1. marmorata) develops as short-term fiziol. reaction of vessels at girls and young women on the open or badly protected by clothes sites of skin which are exposed to cooling. The contributing factors: neurohormonal disturbances (dysmenorrhea, hypothyroidism, etc.). It is quite often combined with Crocq's disease (see), perfigeration (see), hyperhidrosis (see), disturbance keratinizations (see).

Sometimes arises at patients with a nodular periarteritis, dermatomyositis. Morfol, changes of a vascular wall are absent. It is clinically characterized by the unstable the limited or disappearing during the pressing widespread spots of pale cyanotic color in the form of a grid with ovate-orbicular loops or densely located circles merging various size, in the center of loops skin color is more pale than normal; it is localized symmetrically, preferential on extremities, side surfaces of a trunk.

L. reticularis a calore (s. cutis marmorata pigmentosa) develops on the sites of skin which are exposed to warming by hot-water bottles, diathermies in the form of the erubescence having in the beginning passing, and then resistant character with the subsequent mesh pigmentation.

L. lenticularis is an initial stage of an indurative erythema and is characterized by a mesh mramornost of skin of shins; the phenomena of an endophlebitis of vessels of a derma are histologically noted.

The diagnosis does not represent difficulties, is based on a wedge, manifestations; the differential diagnosis is carried out in some cases with rozeolezny rash at syphilis, a toksikodermiya, etc.

Treatment is ineffective. Appoint redoxons, P, PP, drugs of calcium. At l. reticularis a frigore and L. racemosa carry out radiation of skin by suberythema doses of ultraviolet rays, heat baths, massage. According to indications — antitubercular and antisyphilitic therapy.

The forecast and prevention depend on the basic disease which was the reason of L.

Bibliography: Cherikover Ya. A. To a question of a livedo at a nodular periarteritis, Vestn, dermas, and veins., No. 7, page 53, 1972; Shaposhnikov O. K. and D e of m of e of N to the island and N. V. Vascular damages of skin, page 185, L., 1974.

O. K. Shaposhnikov.