LIPOFUSCIN (grech, lipos fat + lat. fuscus dark; synonym: a brown pigment of wear, a pigment of aging, a brown pigment) — the zhirobelkovy brown pigment which is contained in a type of grains and glybok in cytoplasm of cells of tissues of the person and animals.
L. treats group of lipidogenny pigments, contains 20 — 50% of fats, 30 — 60% of proteins; 9 — 20% are made by the rest which is not giving in to hydrolysis. Physical. and gistokhy, its properties change depending on a stage of formation. So-called early L. (propigmentgranula) — colourless or yellowish powdered accumulations, soluble in to-takh and fatty solvents; they contain iron, bazofilna are painted by Sudan in frozen sections, possess a light yellow autoflyuorestsention, poorly recover silver nitrate and ferricyanide, in cells are located near kernels. In process of maturing coloring of a pigment becomes brown, the autoflyuorestsention gets a red-brown shade, its solubility in decreases to-takh and fatty solvents, the sudanofiliya comes to light in paraffin sections, iron is not defined, also the recovering properties amplify a basophilia. Electronic microscopically L. it is found in the field of lysosomes; in granules high activity of lizosomalny enzymes is defined.
L. meets in all bodies and tissues of the person, hematothermal animals, mollusks. The quantity it changes at various fiziol, and patol, processes: increases with age, during the strengthening funkts, activities of body, at an atrophy; decreases at dystrophic and necrotic processes. Popular belief that L. is substance-slag, a cut collects in a cell owing to the strengthened formation and delay of elimination, it is impossible to consider correct. L. is the normal component of a cell participating in her metabolism.
Detection in L. flavin enzymes and carotinoids allows to speak about performance of L. functions of power supply of a cell in the conditions of a hypoxia.
L. in cells and fabrics is defined with the help gistokhy, ferroferritsianidny reaction of Shmorl. So-called early L. reveal gistokhy. Perls's reaction to iron (see. Perlsa way ), and also during the coloring by Sudan of III in frozen sections.
Bibliography: T. N's thrush. About the nature and biological value of lipofuscin, Arkh. patol., t. 34, No. 2, page 75, 1972, bibliogr.; Karnaukhov V. N. About a role of carotinoids in formation of lipofuscin and adaptation of zooblasts to a lack of oxygen, Cytology, t. 15, No. 5, page 538, 1973, bibliogr.; Pearce E. A histochemistry, the lane with English, M., 1962; Clara M. Metho-den der Lipidhistochemie, Handb, d. His-tochem., hrsg. v. W. Graumann u. K. Neumann, Bd 5, S. 291, Stuttgart, 1965; G 1 e-es P. HasenM. Lipofuscin in neuronal aging and diseases, Stuttgart, 1976, bibliogr.
T. H. Thrush.