LIPIDOGRAMMA (a lipid[s] + grech, gramma a letter, record, the image) — the graphic representation of results electrophoretic and chromatographic fractionation of mix of lipids or lipoproteids, can serve for quality and quantitative standard of maintenance of this or that lipid or a lipoproteid in mix.
L. together with the analysis of lipids of blood helps to find out the nature of disturbance of lipidic and lipoproteidny exchange and it is widely used, e.g., during the phenotyping of dislipoproteinemiya. Most often plasma or blood serum is exposed to a research. (Fat to - you, mono - di - and triglycerides, phospholipids, free and esterified cholesterol) or the individual components entering into these fractions widely apply thin layer to division of lipids into the general fractions chromatography (see), for a cut use extracts of lipids in organic solvents or in their mix, napr, in mix of chloroform with methanol. The speed of division, high resolving power, a possibility of use of trace amounts of substances and comparative simplicity of definition which is not demanding the special equipment belong to advantages of a thin-layer chromatography. In some cases after special processing hromatogramm, napr, at a carbonization of the zones corresponding to individual lipids, mix K 2 Cr 2 O 7 and H 2 SO 4 it is possible by means of densitometers (see. Densitometry ) to receive H.p. the quantitative characteristic of each component. For determination of absolute content of this or that fraction of lipids or an individual lipid it is necessary to apply in each case on a plate the known amounts of substances witnesses. Most often use L. for quantitative assessment of a ratio of lipoproteids of a blood plasma at its electrophoretic division on paper (identical division is noted at an electrophoresis of lipoproteids on agarose and on an atsetattsellyuloza), in polyacrylamide gel and other environments carriers (see. Electrophoresis ). At the same time a certain pattern in an arrangement of strips of various classes of lipoproteids (fig.) is noted.
Fractionation of lipoproteids by paper electrophoresis was for the first time offered to A. Fasoli in 1953. Further the method was improved. Blood for the analysis is taken in the morning, on an empty stomach (later 12 — 14 hours after the last meal). The most sharp separation of lipoproteids by this method turns out during the use of the barbitalovy buffer (0,12 M; pH 8,6) containing 1% of albumine. Record L. it is made on special densitometers, the ratio of fractions of lipoproteids is expressed as a percentage.
Unlike paper electrophoresis, the electrophoresis of lipoproteids in polyacrylamide gel depending on the picked-up conditions (number of layers and percent of polyacrylamide in them) allows to divide separate classes of lipoproteids into subclasses, napr, the lipoproteids of high density (LHD) on LVP2 and LVP3. Other feature of an electrophoresis of lipoproteids in polyacrylamide gel is the clearness and contrast of strips that favorably affects L.
Ustanovleno's quality that at damages of a liver, is more often — acute, is more rare — chronic, decrease in contents in a blood plasma of a-lipoproteids and increase in maintenance of beta lipoproteids is observed. At a severe form of a viral hepatitis, and also at mechanical jaundice α-lipoproteids can not be found in general. Increase in abundance of fraction of α-lipoproteids is observed sometimes at hron, hepatitis, and fraction pre-beta and beta lipoproteids — at fatty infiltration of a liver, a xanthomatosis, a diabetes mellitus and a hypothyroidism.
Bibliography: Keyts M. Tekhnika of a lipidologiya, the lane with English, M., 1975, bibliogr.; Lederer M. Introduction to paper electrophoresis, the lane with English, M., 1956: M and r ach e in and E. Ya. Division of lipoproteids of blood serum by method of a disk electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel, Vopr, medical chemical, t. 19, century 6, page 652, 1973; Phenotyping of giperlipoproteidemiya, sost. A. N. Klimov, etc., M., 1975.
A. N. Klimov.