LINGVATULIDOZA (linguatulidoses) — the invasive disease of the person and animals caused by lingvatula and porotsefalyusa — arthropods of Linguatulida group (lingular) the class Arachnoidea (arachnoid) with encapsulation of larvae of parasites in a wall of intestines, liver, easy and other bodies. Distinguish lingvatulez and porotsefalez.
Lingvatulez (linguatulosis) is registered in all parts of the world. The activator — Linguatula serrata (Frohlich, 1789) — has the extended, lanceolate, extending kpered body. On its surface to 90 joints; internal segmentation is not available. Females 80 — 130 mm long, width at the front end of a body of 8 — 10 mm, at back — 2 mm. Males 18 — 20 mm long, width at the front end of 3 mm, at back — 0,5 mm. In a stage of puberty of a lingvatul parasitizes in easy snakes, a nasal cavity and frontal sinuses of dogs, wolves, foxes and other animals (final owners), causing in them rhinitis and a frontal sinusitis. Intermediate owners of a parasite — the person, a hare, a rabbit, a Guinea pig, large and small cattle. Their infection occurs at consumption of the food stuffs contaminated by allocations from a nose and a stake of final owners of a parasite. In a stomach of intermediate owners eggs leave larvae, to-rye pass through a wall of a digestive tract in an abdominal cavity and from here in a liver, easy and other bodies where are encapsulated. Quite created larva has the size 4 — X 2 mm. Infection of the person is possible also at consumption of a crude liver of the cattle with larvae of a lingvatula, to-rye get into his nasopharynx. Infection of final owners occurs during the eating of the infested wildings — intermediate owners.
In a basis pathogeny — a sensitization of an organism products of exchange or disintegration of a parasite and mechanical influence lingvatul on bodies. Larvae of a parasite found during the opening of the people who died from different diseases.
Clinical picture the lingvatuleza is studied poorly. It often proceeds subclinically. In an early phase of a disease allergic reactions, later retentsionny jaundice, a nasopharyngitis, hemorrhages in lungs, defeats of c are described. N of page, glaucoma.
Treatment L. it is not developed. Forecast in most cases favorable.
Prevention: protection of foodstuff from pollution by excrements of dogs.
Porotsefalez (porocephalosis) is considerably widespread in the Western and Central Africa, meets in Indonesia, China. The activator — Porocephalus (Armillifer) armillatus (Wyman, 1848). In a stage of puberty porotsefalyus parasitizes in respiratory tracts of large snakes (a python, etc.), to-rye are his final owners. Intermediate owners — the person, a monkey, a giraffe, an antelope, a hedgehog, rodents probably some other mammals. In adulthood of Porocephalus armillatus has the extended body of yellowish color with banners. Females 90 — 120 mm long, have 18 — 22 banners, males of 30 — 50 mm 17 long banners.
Infection porotsefalezy the person and other intermediate owners occurs through the food contaminated by the allocations of snakes containing eggs of a parasite. The possibility of infection is not excluded and at consumption in the raw of meat of the infested snakes. From eggs in a digestive tract of the person larvae hatch, to-rye pass through a wall of intestines and are settled on bodies and fabrics where are soon encapsulated. At necropsy of the person they were found in a mesentery, a wall of intestines (fig.), on the surface of a liver, sometimes in its parenchyma and bilious channels, and also in lungs and a pleura; occasionally larvae get into a subarachnoid space, a spleen, kidneys, limf, nodes, under a conjunctiva of an eye, into uterine tubes. Over time larvae (nymph) of a porotsefalyus perish and obyzvestvlyatsya. On site parasitizing of the activator sometimes there are necroses with the subsequent fibrosis and calcification. Final owners catch porotsefalezy during the eating of rodents.
Clinical picture the porotsefaleza is studied insufficiently. In most cases it proceeds subclinically, but sometimes flows hard, comes to an end with the death of patients. Developing of peritonitis, bronchitis, pneumonia, meningitis is described. It was reported about death of the patient from the retentsionny jaundice caused by accumulation of a great number of nymphs in the general bilious channel, and also about death of the descending colon, sick after operation for subacute obturatsionny impassability — the gleam of a gut was Porocephalus armillatus which are sharply narrowed owing to a thickening of its walls to 1 — 4 cm because of a massive invasion by larvae (nymphs). In most cases the invasion is distinguished only during the opening died from other diseases. Recognition of a porotsefalez during lifetime of the patient perhaps after calcification of nymphs of a parasite: at rentgenol, a research they are visible in the form of the double-circuit ring-shaped educations reminding the chain links which are broken off on one pole; perimeter of rings of 10 — 20 mm, thickness of their 1 — 2 mm, central area to dia. 2 — 3 mm. Unlike tsistitserok, nymphs are never localized in muscles. Specific treatment is not developed.
Bibliography: Pavlovsky E. H. Guide to parasitology of the person, t. 2, page 616, M. — L., 1948; With and r e-d about N. of the Item Linguatula rhinaria — a larva (Pentastoma denticulatum) in a lung of the person, the Doctor, business, No. 4, page 314, 1928; Khalil G. M of Linguatula serrata (Pentastomida) of parasitizing humans and animals in Egypt, neighboring countries and elsewhere, J. Egypt, pubi. Hlth. Ass., v. 47, p. 364, 1972, bibliogr.; Manson’s tropical diseases, ed. by G. Wilcocks a., P. E. G. Manson-Bahr, p. 1070, Baltimore, 1972; S with h a with h e r J. o. The etiology of halzoun in Lebanon, Trans, roy. Soc. trop. Med. Hyg., v. 63, p. 854, 1969.
N. N. Plotnikov.