From Big Medical Encyclopedia

LIBYA , Socialist National Libyan Arab Jamahiriya — the state in North Africa on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea. The area is 1759,5 thousand km 2 . Population of 3100 thousand people (1978). The capital — Tripoli (580 thousand zhit., 1975). Ofits. language Arab. Administrative division — 38 municipal districts. L. — the republic, till 1969 the Kingdom Libya. The highest legislative also execute telny body — the General national congress and its general secretariat as a part of the 5th persons. Executive body — the Highest national committee.


Most part of L. represents the plateau 200 — 600 m high above sea level, to Yu. from it the huge Libyan Desert. 98% of the territory of the country are occupied with deserts and semi-deserts, among to-rykh there are oases. Climate — tropical deserts with sharp seasonal and daily temperature variations and big dryness of air; on the coast — Mediterranean.

Basis of the economy of L. oil production is (99,7 million t in 1977). Other industries of the mining industry (extraction of salt, gypsum, etc.), and also metallurgy, production of cement, chemical fertilizers develop. There are small and medium-sized enterprises of food and light industry. The St. 70% of the population are engaged in agriculture, the cooperative movement is encouraged. In 1976 entered cooperatives apprx. 15 thousand families of peasants. The main pages - x. cultures: wheat, barley, vegetables, tobacco, peanut, olives, dates and citrus. The leading industry of agriculture — livestock production.

The national structure is homogeneous. The vast majority of inhabitants — Arabs (Libyans), live in nek-ry oases berbers, a house and to a tube. The natural movement of the population, on ofitsa. to the data published in editions of WHO, in 1973 (for 1000 the population): birth rate 45,4; general mortality 8,8, natural increase 36,6. Child mortality 80.3 on 1000 live-born. In 1970 — 1975 average life expectancy for men — 51.4 years, for women — 54,5 years.

In incidence of the population of L. figure prominently inf. and parasitic diseases. Trachoma is most widespread, with it it is struck to 75% zhit. In yuzh. and vost. districts of the country, in zones of oases, this disease struck nearly 100% of the population. In the central districts of the country treatment of diseases of eyes is made in the existing points of health care and consultations on protection of motherhood and the childhood and it is considered a problem of first-priority importance. Mass treatment of trachoma is begun in 1970 — 1972 at all rural schools, and also at city schools in densely populated districts and suburbs where there live immigrants from rural areas. Important problem of health care of the country is tuberculosis, to-ry is especially widespread in the cities: in 1974 1627 fresh cases of a pulmonary tuberculosis and 661 cases of tuberculosis of other bodies were registered. In the country are widespread inf. hepatitis, measles, whooping cough, poliomyelitis, diphtheria and other diseases. There are separate cases of a leprosy (1974 — 68 cases), tetanus. In yuzh. districts it is widespread and the schistosomatosis poses a serious threat for health of the population.

Medical - a dignity. activity in the country is headed by the secretary of the Highest national committee on questions of health care. In each municipal district there is a director a dignity. services, heading the organization of activity of all medical and a dignity. institutions of the district. The great value is attached to planning of health care. The republican authorities made the decision on cancellation of a payment for medical service.

In 1974 in the country there were 55 BCs and other institutions on 9741 beds (41,5 beds on 10 Ltd companies zhit.), including 98,2% of beds in public institutions. Among institutions 34-tsy of the general type (5715 beds), 2 maternity hospitals (379 beds), 5 pediatric BCs (766 beds), 1 eye-tsa (133 beds), the physiotherapeutic center (100 beds), 2 travmatol.-tsy (569 beds), 3 tubercular-tsy (511 beds), 2 psychiatric-tsy (1045 beds), 2-tsy for treatment mentally retarded (295 beds), 2 leper colonies (175 beds) and 1-tsa for treatment of the persons having diabetes (53 beds).

Extra hospital help in 1972 was given by 26 polyclinic departments of BC, 74 policlinics, 465 out-patient clinics, 31 points of medical aid and private medical practitioners. In 1972 in L. there were 76 consultations on health protection of mother and child, to-rye visited St. 99 thousand pregnant women, more than 51 thousand children aged till 1 year and St. 45 thousand children at the age of 1 — 5 years. The domiciliary care was given to 5,2 thousand pregnant women and 21,6 thousand children of chest and preschool age. However in towns and districts of the desert negotiability for medpomo-shchyo remains low because of insufficient a dignity. - a gleam, the work explaining value of the prenatal help. For overseeing health of pupils created the relevant service, in each district there is an out-patient clinic on health protection of school students. Stomatol, help in 1972 was given 61 dental surgery stationary and 1 mobile by out-patient clinics, to-rye registered more than 430 thousand visits.

The service of fight against tuberculosis has 14 antitubercular clinics, 2 leading antitubercular centers located in Tripoli and Benghazi and 9 mobile antitubercular units. Due to growth of incidence of trachoma 14 antitracheomatous clinics, 5 eye out-patient clinics and 1 mobile unit (1972) are created. Besides, 7 psychiatric clinics, 1 antimalarial center, 2 antileprotic clinics and 3 out-patient clinics on treatment of a schistosomatosis (1972) function. Name and content of work of healthcare institutions of L. not fully correspond to the concepts accepted in the USSR (see. Treatment and prevention facilities abroad ). Main objective protivoepid. services — identification epid, diseases, the prevention of distribution of epidemics. In the country there are 9 laboratories which are engaged chemical and bacterial, water analysis. In 1972 46 settlements had a water supply system, to-ry serviced apprx. 44% of citizens; 24% of the population in 7 cities lived in the houses connected to system of the sewerage.

In the country there are 2 balneological resorts: Sidi Messi and the Port of Gargareze (near Tripoli).

In 1975 in L. was apprx. 2600 doctors (1 doctor on 953 zhit.), from to-rykh 2550 St. 200 dentists, more than 450 druggists (from them 57,5% worked in public institutions), apprx. 1000 midwifes, St. 3100 nurses and apprx. 3400 assistants to the nurse and the midwife worked in public institutions.

Preparation of medical shots is carried out on medical f-those un-that by Benghazi with the 6-year term of training. The paramedical staff is trained by 7 medical schools with the 3-year term of training, and also 15 medical schools with the 1,5-year term of training for training of assistants to the nurse.

Bibliography: The fifth review of a condition of health care in the world (1969 — 1972), page 325, Geneva, WHO, 1977; Countries of the world, Short political and economic reference book, page 291, M., 1978; Khromov A. S. and Kutuzova of E. P. Zdravookhraneniye of the Libyan Arab Republic, Owls. zdravookhr., No. 1, page 53, 1975; Demographic Yearbook, 1975, r 153, N. Y., 1976; World Health Statistics Annual, 1973 — 1976, v. 1 — 3, 1976; World Health Statistics Report, v. 30, No. 2, p. 166, 1977.

A.S. Khromov