LIBIH Justus (Liebig Justus, 1803 — 1873) — the German chemist, professor (1824), the member of the St. Petersburg academy of Sciences (1830), the president of the Bavarian academy of Sciences (1860).
Studied in Bonn, then in Erlangenskom un-those. In 1822, without having ended un-that, went to France where studied chemistry, physics, mineralogy, zoology at the largest scientists of that time. Since 1824 the prof. of chemistry in Giessen un-those. In 1825 organized the Germany's first scientific chemical laboratory, in a cut many famous chemists worked and studied. Since 1852 professional. Munich un-that.
The main opening of Yu. Libikh belong to the field of organic chemistry. The identity of salts opened for them in 1823 rattling and cyanic to - t formed a basis for establishment of the concept «isomerism» (see. Isomerism ). The collaboration with F. Voeller (1832) devoted to studying of oil bitter by mindaly played a big role theories of difficult radicals (see). In 1834 it finished a research of a structure of ether, alcohol and their derivatives and put forward the theory, on a cut the specified substances belong to connections of the radical of ethyl. Approximately for the same span it received a number of derivatives of cyan, and also hlorat, Chlorali hydras and chloroform. The last two substances were widely used in medical practice. In work about a structure organic to - the t which is carried out together with Dumas (J. Century of Dumas), it distributed on organic to - you the provision on multibasicity to - t, put forward by the English chemist Graham (Th. Graham). Yu. Libikh improved a method of organic analysis. It possesses development of a method of definition of carbon, hydrogen, alkaloids, and also a method of determination of molecular weight of organic bases by means of the analysis of their chloroplatinates. It improved the device for combustion of organic compounds (Libikh's furnace).
In the field of inorganic chemistry it developed methods of separation of nickel from cobalt and definition of oxygen by means of pyrogallol.
Works of later period are devoted to hl. obr. biochemistry of animals and plants. In 1839 it published the chemical theory fermentations (see). In 1840 he opposed the humic theory dominating then, putting forward the theory of mineral food of plants. Considering that at cultivation of plants the soil cannot deliver infinitely mineral substances, 10. Libikh suggested to resupply these substances in the soil by its artificial fertilizer. Yu. Libikh's works concerning food of the person contain classification of feedstuffs, instructions on value of a way of cooking, and also the recipe of preparation of children's milk soup and beef tea.
It opened as a part of urine benzaminoacetic to - that, creatinine and tyrosine as a product of decomposition of casein. Yu. Libikh's works on extractives of skeletal muscles are considered classical: for them it is opened as a part of muscles inosinic to - that, accumulation milk to - you in a muscle is proved during its work, the structure of creatine, creatinine and methyl-aminoacetic acid is established.
Works: Anleitung zur Analyse organischer Korper, Braunschweig, 1837; Die Tier-chemie oder die organische Chemie in ihrer Anwendung auf Physiologie und Pathologie, Braunschweig, 1842; Chemische Bri-efe, Heidelberg, 1844; Die Chemie in ihrer Anwendung auf Agrikultur und Physiologie, Braunschweig, 1846 (the Russian lane, M. — L., 1936); Chemische Untersuchung iiber das Fleisch und seine Zubereitung zum Na-hrungsmittel, Heidelberg, 1847.
Bibliography: Lebedyantsev A. Justus Libich, in book: Libikh Yu. Chemistry in the annex to agriculture and fiziol., the lane with it., page 29, M. — L., 1936; Menshut-k and N N. Ocherk of development of chemical views, page 74, etc., SPb., 1888; III and r-in ying W. W. Justus Libich M., 1925.