LIBERIA, the Republic of Liberia — the state in the Western Africa. The area is 111,4 thousand km 2 . Population of 1,8 million people (1977). The capital — Monrovia (171,6 thousand zhit., 1974). Ofits. English. Administrative division — 9 counties and 4 territories.
The head of state — the president. The legislature belongs to Legislative assembly (the two-chamber parliament consisting of the senate and the House of Representatives), executive — to the president and the government.
L. — the seaside low plain, places is boggy, in depth of the country the area gradually raises, becoming hilly with certain mountains, with dense river network. The climate is equatorial, hot and wet.
L. — the agrarian country with rather developed mining industry (extraction of iron ore, diamonds, gold). The leading industry of agriculture — production of natural rubber. Besides, rice, a cassava, bananas, kernels of palm nut, coffee, cocoa beans is produced. The livestock production is developed poorly. There are not enough self-produced food stuffs. The living standards of the population are extremely low. The rich mineral and page - x. resources are developed by generally foreign monopolies.
National structure — relatives by origin the African people: Crewe, goal, to the kpella, scrap, Bass, etc.; apprx. 3% — American-Liberian (descendants of the Africans who were returned from the USA). The natural movement of the population, on ofitsa. to data of the UN during 1970 — 1975 (for 1000 the population): birth rate 49,8, mortality 20,7, natural increase 29,1. Child mortality 159,2 on 1000 live-born. According to the UN in 1971, average life expectancy for men 45,8 years, for women 44,0 years. Apprx. 42% of the population 15 years are younger.
Fight with inf. and parasitic diseases in L. is the most important problem of health care. Malaria, a gastroenteritis, a leprosy are widespread in the country (apprx. 21,5 for 1000 zhit., in 1976 2354 fresh cases of a leprosy), tuberculosis, a schistosomatosis, an onchocercosis, helminthoses, especially ankilostomidoz, and veins are registered. diseases. A trypanosomiasis Tappita is widespread in the county of the Nimbus around. In coastal rainforests the centers of yellow fever, a filariasis, a frambeziya meet. In 1970 — 1973 in L. epidemic of cholera which began near Monrovia was observed. 3629 cases of cholera confirmed bacteriological, including 213 cases with a lethal outcome, and 13 900 cases with the unconfirmed diagnosis, W were registered. h 167 cases of death. The law of the country provides obligatory registration of cases of death, however it is not always carried out. In 1976 646 cases of cholera are registered.
The national health service consists of the advisory board, min.-va health care and social security and administration of health care of counties and territories. As the advisory board pronouncement of recommendations to the president and Minister for Health and Social Welfare enters. Min-in includes departments of health, preventive and administrative services. The department of health services is responsible for work of the public medical institutions. The department of preventive services is engaged in fight against infectious and parasitic diseases, sanitary education and questions of protection of motherhood and the childhood. Legal issues, planning and information enter directly competence of the minister. The administration of health care on the periphery directs work of BC and other medical institutions on places.
In each county (except for the county Montserrado) would be available, the therapist staffed by 2 doctors, one of them, another — the surgeon. In 5 counties in there would be the third specialist — the dentist. The chief physician would head medical * a dignity. work in the county.
In 1974 in the country would be 32 on 2172 beds (14 beds on 10 000 zhit.), including 15 state BCs (55% of beds), 10 BCs of concessions (31% of beds) and 7 missionary BCs (14% of beds). Among the state BCs would be available the general type, and also maternity hospital, children's, ophthalmologic, tubercular and psychiatric-tsy. The largest country would be main in Monrovia. Extra hospital help (1972) is given 31 polyclinic departments of BC, doctors of a private practice, 15 policlinics, in 4 of to-rykh are available hospitals, 32 centers of health care, 392 clinics of health care, 85 first-aid posts, and also 7 mobile crews of health care, to-rye carry out the program of vaccination against smallpox and measles. Name and content of work of healthcare institutions of L. not fully correspond to the concepts accepted in the USSR (see. Treatment and prevention facilities abroad ). Protection of motherhood and the childhood is carried out by 18 women's and 43 children's consultations staffed by midwifes and assistants to the nurse. In 1972 they were visited by St. 19 thousand pregnant women, 9,4 thousand children till 1 year and more than 6,6 thousand children from 1 year to 5 years. 7 dental surgeries functioned, to-rye the same year visited apprx. 3 thousand patients. Among specialized out-patient institutions — 1 polyclinic department-tsy on rehabilitations, 2 psychiatric clinics (clinic), 1 antitubercular clinic (clinic), 1 leper colony.
For implementation protivoepid, actions in L. in 1972 there were 1 anticholeraic group and 2 groups on fight against a frambeziya, and also the laboratory of public health care, edges in a year made apprx. 10 thousand analyses. Only 3 cities (Monrovia, Greenville and Harbel) are provided with a water supply system, the Crimea 80% use zhit. The sewerage is available only in Monrovia, 50% use it zhit. cities.
In 1975 in the country there were 170 doctors, 76 medical assistants, 9 dentists, 25 druggists, apprx. 300 midwifes, St. 400 nurses, St. 300 assistants to the nurse and midwifes and apprx. 300 people of other medical staff. Training of doctors is conducted in medical department Liberian un-that and National in-that medicine; in 1974 10 doctors are let out. The paramedical staff (medical assistants, laboratory assistants, nurses, midwifes) is trained in 8 educational institutions, including 3 private schools; the term of training is 2 — 3 years. In 1974 schools ended 86 nurses and midwifes and 5 laboratory assistants.
Bibliography: The fifth review of a condition of health care in the world (1969 — 1972), page 67, Geneva, WHO, 1977; The Fourth review of a condition of health care in the world (1965 — 1968), page 88, Geneva, WHO, 1973; Proposed programme budget for the financial years 1978 and 1979, p. 372, Geneva, 1976.
E. V. Galakhov.