LESOTHO, Kingdom of Lesotho — the state in South Africa. The area is 30,3 thousand km 2 , population of 1213 thousand people (1976). The capital — Maseru (20 thousand people, 1975). Administrative division — 9 districts. Ofits. languages English and sesuto.
State system — constitutional monarchy. Enters the Commonwealth headed by Great Britain till 1966 — protectorate of Great Britain (Basutoland). Independence is declared in 1966. The head of state — the king. The legislature belongs to the king and parliament — Temporary national assembly, a cut before adoption of the new constitution performs legislative functions. Executive power is carried out by the government headed by the prime minister.
L. occupies Basuto's plateau. Average height above sea-level 2300 — 3000 m. Climate passatny.
L. — one of the most underdeveloped countries of Africa. The basis of the economy — agriculture. All earth actually is in hands of leaders of tribes. Corn, wheat, an ambercane, vegetables are grown up. Sheep breeding and production of wool is developed. The industry is presented to hl. obr. enterprises of local value. Diamonds are mined. The country practically is in complete economic dependence from the Republic of South Africa. The living standards of the population are extremely low. Small plots of the earth do not allow peasants to support the families. Food and fuel are imported. Annually large number of workers is hired for work in mines, mines and in agriculture of the Republic of South Africa (160 thousand people, 1976).
The main population — Africans (99,5%), hl. obr. basuto. The natural movement of the population on ofitsa. to the data published in editions of WHO in 1973 it was characterized by the following indicators (on 1000 people): birth rate 36,7; mortality 14,5; natural increase 22,2. Child mortality 114,4 on 1000 live-born. Main reasons for death of the population: the tuberculosis, a typhoid and paratyphus, diseases connected with a hyponutrient, cardiovascular diseases, malignant new growths.
The health service is headed by Min-in of health care. In 1974 in the country was 107 stationary to lay down. institutions on 2114 beds (20,8 beds on 10 000 zhit.), including 1-tsa the general profile on 327 beds, 16 rural or regional BCs on 1404 beds, 88 medical centers with 215 beds, psychiatric-tsa on 120 beds and leper colony on 48 beds. 36 to lay down. institutions on 1192 beds are under authority of the state, and 71 with a power of 922 beds under noncommercial institutions. Name and content of work of healthcare institutions of L. not fully corresponds to the concepts accepted In the USSR (see. Treatment and prevention facilities abroad ).
In 1974 in the country 50 doctors worked (1 doctor on 20 320 zhit.), 3 dentists, apprx. 250 nurses-midwifes, St. 50 nurses and St. 270 assistants to the nurse.
Bibliography: Countries of the world, Short political and economic reference book, page 288, M., 1978; World Health Statistics Annual, 1973 — 1976, v. 1, p. 10, v. 3, p. 9, 72, 147, Geneva, 1976; World Health Statistics Report, v. 28, No. of c,> p 430, 1975.
A. A. Rozov.