LESGAFT Pyotr Frantsevich (1837 — 1909) — the domestic anatomist and the teacher, the founder of science about physical training in our country, one of creators of theoretical anatomy, the progressive public figure, the doctor of medicine (1865) and the doctor of surgery (1868), professor (1868).
After the termination in 1861 Mr. Medikokhirurgicheskoy of academy in St. Petersburg it was left at it and worked at department of anatomy at V. L. Gruber. Since 1868 the department chair of physiological (normal) anatomy Kazan un-that. For a performance in the press against illegal actions of the university authorities in 1871 it was dismissed from un-that. In 1872 — 1874 at V. L. Gruber's department taught anatomy on Female medical courses. For many years worked on the organization physical. education in military schools. In 1886 — 1897 gave lectures on anatomy in St. Petersburg un-those. In 1893 created the St. Petersburg biological laboratory. In 1896 at laboratory organized the High scientific courses of training of teachers and conductresses of physical education. In 1905 these courses after their closing with the imperial government were transformed by P.F. Lesgaft to the Higher free school, and at it an evening school is open for workers. In 1907 the school was closed by the imperial government as the organization unreliable in the political relation; in 1918 the in-t of P.F. Lestaft was reopened as Natural-science. In 1901 P.F. Lestaft was sent for a year from St. Petersburg based on political character.
P. F. Lesgaft published apprx. 130 scientific works on questions of anatomy, physical education, pedagogics, biology. Being based on N. I. Pirogov and Ge. Lamarck, P. F's views. Lesgaft laid the foundation of theoretical anatomy, proved the idea about interdependence and mutual adaptability of structure and function of bodies. On the basis of these fundamental anatomic representations he developed the doctrine about joints and types of a structure of muscles in connection with their function, studied the factors influencing a shape of bones and also formulated the provision on a possibility of the aimed influence by specially developed complexes of physical exercises at the development of members of the body and all organism. He created the theory physical. educations, a cut the principle of unity of physical and intellectual development is the cornerstone. P. F. Lesgaft considered system of the directed exercises as means not only physical. development, but also intellectual, moral and esthetic education. A number of works of P.F. Lesgaft is devoted to questions of education of children of preschool age, in to-rykh it determined consistent patterns for development of the child, and also formation of his temperament and character. The name of P.F. Lesgaft is appropriated State the Orders of Lenin and awards of the Red Banner in-that physical culture, Natural in-that to Academy of pedagogical sciences of RSFSR, Laboratory of functional morphology of Academy of Sciences of the USSR and one of policlinics in Moscow.
Works: General anatomy, p.1, Sib., 1885; The Short course of the general anthropotomy, analysis of simple physical exercises and the description of schools for preparation of teachers of gymnastics for army in the states of Western Europe, SPb., 1886; The Relation of anatomy to physical training and the main tasks of physical education at school, M., 1888; Fundamentals of theoretical anatomy, p.1, SPb., 1892, p.1 — 2, SPb., 1905 — 1922; Anthropotomy, century 1 — 2, SPb., 1895 — 1896; Collection of pedagogical compositions, t. 1 — 5, M., 1951 — 1956.
Bibliography: Belorusova A. V., P.F. Lesgaft about medical gymnastics, Uchen. zap. GDOIFK of P.F. Lesgaft, century 16, page 80, L., 1972; Gudkova N. A., N. I. Pirogov and P.F. Lesgaft, in book: Nikolay Ivanovich Pirogov is a great anatomist, under the editorship of V. V. Kupriyanov, page 50, Chisinau, 1960; Zhdanov D. A. K to the 125 anniversary since the birth of P.F. Lesgaft, Arkh. annate., gistol, and embriol., t. 43, No. 9, page 104, 1962; Kasyan of the Tax Code about V. G. Vklad P. F. Lesgafta and his schools in development of morphology of the person and animals, Uchen. zap. GDOIFK of P.F. Lesgaft, century 10, page 55, L., 1965; Strelnikov I. D. P.F. Lesgaft's value in development of biology and biological bases of physical training and education in Russia and the Soviet Union, in the same place, page 19; Sh and x in e r-d about in G. G. Pyotr Frantsevich Lesgaft, in book; Lesgaft P. F. SOBR. ped. soch., t. 1, page 7, M., 1951.
V. K. Dobrovolsky.