LEPESHINSKAYA Olga Borisovna (1871 — 1963) — the figure of the Russian revolutionary movement, the Soviet biologist and the cytologist, the academician of AMH (1950), the winner of the State award USSR (1950). The member of the CPSU since 1898.
Ended in 1897. Christmas medical assistant's courses in St. Petersburg. Since 1894 participated in revolutionary movement, worked in a Marxist circle. In 1897 followed the husband, the revolutionary P. N. Lepeshinsky, in the reference where served as the paramedic in the village of Kuraginskom of the Yenisei province. In 1899 participated in a meeting of political exiled of Marxists, to-rye led by V. I. Lenin took out a sharp accusatory protest against views of «economists». In 1900 participated in the organization of the Pskov group of assistance to the Iskra newspaper. In 1902 un-that studied in Switzerland as medical f-those Lausanne. In 1903, having returned to Russia, went to Minusinsk and organized P. N. Lepeshinsky's escape from the reference, soon after that emigrated to Geneva where worked in group of Bolsheviks emigrants.
In 1906 returned to Russia and together with the husband conducted party work in Orsha. In 1915 ended medical f-t Moscow un-that and it was left the assistant at department of therapy, but a year later it is dismissed for political motives. After Great October socialist revolution worked on the organization of schools and health resorts for workers.
Since 1920 the assistant to department of histology at the 1st Moscow university (nowadays the 1st MMI).
Since 1926 the manager gistol, laboratory Biological in-that Communistic academy of Timiryazev, edge was transferred later in All-Union to in-t of experimental medicine. Since 1949 the manager of department of development of living material, and then the head of laboratory of cytology Ying-that experimental biology of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences.
O. B. Lepeshinskaya published St. 150 works on questions of biology and cytology.
O. B. Lepeshinskaya offered the wrong theory of emergence of cells of modern organisms from noncellular living material, napr, blood cells from balls of a yolk at a chicken embryo. She drew a conclusion that self-generation of life came from an inanimate matter not only billions years ago, but as if occurs and presently. Since 1953 as a result of a number of test researches influence of her views was overcome.
It is awarded by the Orders of Lenin, the Labour Red Banner and medals.
Works: Origin of cells from living material and a role of living material in an organism, M. — L., 1945, 1950; Covers of zooblasts and their biological value, M., 1952; Meetings with Ilyich (Memoirs of the old Bolshevik), M., 1971.
Bibliography: Women of the Russian revolution, sost. L. P. Jacques and A. M. Itkina, M., 1968; Zavarzin A. A., Nasonov D. N. and Crack and N. G N. About one «direction» in cytology, Arkh. biol, sciences, t. 56, century 1, page 84, 1939.
A. G. Knorre.