LEPER COLONY (late lat. leprosus leprous) — the treatment and prevention facility performing prevention and treatment of patients with a leprosy.
L. arose as shelters for lifelong keeping of patients with a leprosy. It was caused by the existing idea of a possibility of easy transfer of a leprosy from patients to healthy faces, and also the aspiration to remove from society of the disabled people representing a burdensome show at late stages of a course of a disease.
Idea of extreme contageousness of a leprosy affected also placement of L. — they were away from means of communication, settlements, at the same time even the prevailing direction of winds was considered.
L were one of the most ancient. in the territory of Armenia. Data on L remained., opened in 260 — 270 in the area which was called Arbenut. Emergence of L. in Europe (Greece, Italy) treats 2 century. First L. in France it was open in 460 g. The greatest number of L. in the countries of Europe was in 12 — 13 centuries. During this period of L., as a rule, belonged to St. Lazar's award (the head of an award it could be chosen only a sick leprosy). By the end of 17 century. L. in a number of the countries of Europe (France, Italy, etc.) were liquidated, and few patients are placed in the general-tsy.
In Russia the first L. arose in 18 century about Cherkassk to Dona. At the end of 19 century leper colonies shelters were created in Siberia, in the North Caucasus, near Astrakhan, in Riga, about St. Petersburg, and also in Uzbekistan. The L created during the pre-revolutionary period on the charitable beginnings. even did not bear a faint resemblance to medical establishment and dragged miserable existence. Opening 22/IV 1926 g the first All-Union meeting on fight against a leprosy, the people's commissar of health care N. A. Semashko noted that «represented by leper colonies we received from an old regime too heavy heritage». In 1923. L. were taken on the state budget (10 L. 625 beds). Further measures for strengthening of their material resources, shots, expansion of bed fund, transformation of L were taken. in modern medical institutions. In the subsequent thanks to successful fight with leprosy (see) in the USSR a row L. it was liquidated.
In the countries with high incidence of a leprosy (the developing countries of Southeast Asia, the Central Africa, etc.) along with the state L., to-rye in a number of the countries would call leprologichesky, antileprotic clinics, sanatoria, there are charitable and private antileprotic institutions, and also different settlements and cooperatives of patients with a leprosy. Patients with a leprosy often settle in Africa about BC of the general type, forming «medical settlements». Role of L. as places of lifelong isolation of patients with a leprosy remained up to the middle of 20 century, so far in practice of treatment the effective chemotherapeutic remedies of a sulfonic row which opened a new era in fight against a leprosy, radically changed L. V role the nek-ry countries of L were not implemented. are liquidated, treatment of patients begins in out-patient conditions, and patients with open forms of a leprosy (lepromatous and boundary and lepromatous) for short term (up to 3 months) hospitalize in special departments at inf., tubercular, Dermatolum, or the general-tsakh. The remained L., except treatment of patients-bakteriovydeliteley, carry out a role of nursing homes and nursing homes for the persons which do not have relatives or lost communication with them.
One of the most known is the Karvillsky leper colony (USA) having not only good to lay down. base, but also being large scientific center.
L. the USSR carries out the following main objectives: 1) performing active prevention of a leprosy; 2) hospitalization of patients with a leprosy; 3) organization rational labor, household and dignity. the mode for patients; 4) the organization of out-patient treatment of patients with a leprosy for the place of their residence, dispensary observation behind them; 5) carrying out research on a leprosy. L. is under authority of min.-va health care of the respective federal or autonomous republic, regional (regional) public health department and it is financed by body of health care on subordination; is independent budgetary institution.
In leper colony the following divisions are created: epidemiological department; hospital; insulator; department for the disabled people needing leaving; out-patient clinic (policlinic); physiotherapeutic office; operating room; X-ray room; laboratories — clinicodiagnostic, pathomorphologic; offices of specialists (ophthalmologist, stomatologist, otorhinolaryngologist, etc.); drugstore; medical and production, labor workshops (see); economic services; club with a cinema hall and rooms for occupations amateur performances, for carrying out cultural and mass work among patients, library, sports grounds. At nek-ry L. orphanages for the healthy children who were born at sick parents are created. In case of the birth of the child in L. it for feeding breast milk leave with sick mother on condition of regular and full treatment it antileprotic drugs; further to an extract of mother from L. the child is given to education to relatives or to orphanage.
Bibliogr. Oganesyan L. A. History of medicine in Armenia, p.1, page 187, Yerevan, 1946; Leprosy and fight against it in the USSR, under the editorship of V. I. Kedrovsky, etc., M., 1927; Recognition and prevention of a leprosy, under the editorship of I. N. Perevodchikov and V. F. Choubin, M., 1957; Reshetillo D. F. Leprosy, SPb., 1904; T about r-with at e in N. A. Leper colonies of Western Europe in the Middle Ages, Uchen. zap. Ying-that on studying of a leprosy, No. 6 (11), page 134, Astrakhan, 1970; Brown J. A. K. of The role of leprosaria and treatment villages in mass campaigns in tropical Africa, Int. J. Leprosy, v. 28, p. 1, 1960; F age t G. H. and. o. The promin treatment of leprosy, ibid., v. 11, p. 52, 1943; Magnussen L. N. The role of the leprosarium, ibid., v. 36, p. 213, 1968; At i of with h o w R. Zur Geschichte des Aussatzer und der Spitaler, besonders in Deutschland, Virchows Arch. path. Anat., Bd 18, S. 273, 1860.
A. A. Yushchenko.