LEONTOVICH Alexander Vasilyevich

From Big Medical Encyclopedia

LEONTOVICH Alexander Vasilyevich (1869 — 1943) — the Soviet physiologist and the neurohistologist, the academician of AN of USSR (1929), zasl. scientist of USSR (1939).

LEONTOVICH Alexander Vasilyevich

In 1893 ended medical f-t Kiev un-that, then worked at departments of histology and physiology of it un-that. In 1900 protected dokt, the thesis on an innervation of skin of the person.

In 1913 — 1939 professional. Moscow agricultural in-that (nowadays Moscow agricultural academy of K. A. Timiryazev); since 1934 the manager. VIEM laboratory; manager. departments of normal physiology Ying-that clinical physiology of AN of USSR (1936 — 1943) and biophysics Ying-that experimental biology and pathology of M3 of USSR (1936—1941).

A. V. Leontovich the first described nervous cells in peripheral textures (1900). In the subsequent researches (1926, 1927, 1930, etc.) by it and his pupils peripheral kletkosoderzhashchy neuroplexes were found in various bodies, fabrics and in vessels hematothermal and cold-bloodeds. These textures are called by it «plexus nervosus autonomies periphericus» (1926). He for the first time proved that peripheral neuroplexes are capable to self-updating during all life of an organism not only in patol, cases, but also is normal (1900, 1906, 1937). This phenomenon is called by it «a constant physiological nervous restitution» (1937). A. V. Leontovich developed an original method of coloring and fixing of peripheral nervous structures methylene blue (1939), allowed to study a structure of peritsellyulyar (synapses), and came to a conclusion that they are fiziol, devices of communication of neurons among themselves. He considered that transfer of nervous excitement from a peritsellyulyar of one neuron on a body of a ganglionic cell of another and consequently, and all neuron, it is carried out in the electric way and generally inductively; offered a hypothesis of neuron as the device of oscillatory current (1928, 1935, 1939, etc.).

A. V. Leontovich wrote the first Russian grant on use of mathematics in biology and medicine (1909 — 1911) and the first Russian textbook on physiology of domestic animals (1916).

Under its management it is prepared apprx. 30 theses, including 18 doctor's. It consisted the member of presidium of AN of USSR and the member of the Academic council of M3 of USSR (1938 — 1943).

Works: New data on skin feeling, p.1 — New data on an innervation of skin of the person, Zap. imp. Academician of sciences, t. 9, No. 9, 1900; Plexus nervosus autonomicus periphericus, Zhurn. Ekspery, biol, and medical, No. 9, page 5, 1926; Neuron as the device of alternating current (on the basis of experience of an electrophysiology a peritselyulya-ditch), Biol, zhurn., t. And, century 2-3, page 252, 1933; About a postshna fiziologichny regenera-shchyu (Neurorestitutio adultorum continua) nervovo! to system dorosly to an orgashzm, Medich. zhurn., t. 7, century 3, page 697, 1937; Suchasna technique zazhittevy farbuvannya HepBiB methylene blue i shshy farbnik, Kshv, 1939.

Bibliography: Bodrova H. Century of i K r and yu-x i of N B. V. Vidatny radyansky f1zyu-log O. V. Leontovich, Kshv, 1950, bibliogr.; 36ipHiiK prisvyacheniye of naM“ Olek-sandr Vasilyovecha Leontovich's aTi, 1869 — 1943, Ki of i'v, 1948, bibliogr.

N. V. Bodrova.