From Big Medical Encyclopedia

Lenin (Ulyanov) Vladimir Ilyich (1870 — 1924) — the ingenious leader of proletarian revolution, the founder and the head of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and first-ever socialist state, the leader of the world proletariat, the international labor and communistic movement, the flame fighter for freedom and happiness of mankind. V. I. Lenin developed and deepened the revolutionary doctrine of Marx — Engels. In its works all components of Marxism — philosophy, political economy, scientific communism received further enrichment and a specification. V. I. Lenin is the most great theorist of proletarian revolution and socialist transformation of society.

Lenin (Ulyanov) Vladimir Ilyich

With a name of Lenin, the most outstanding events of the 20th century — creation of the Communist Party, a victory of Great October socialist revolution and creation of the first-ever state of workers and peasants, creation of socialism to the USSR, formation of world system of socialism and crash of colonialism are connected with his doctrine and titanic activity. The Lenin doctrine as a torch, lights a way, on Krom the Soviet people move forward — to communism. «Lenin was 47 years old — comrade L. I. Brezhnev at the ceremonial meeting of the Central Committee of the CPSU, Supreme Council of the USSR and the Supreme Council of RSFSR devoted to the 50 anniversary of Great October socialist revolution said — when from a tribune of the II All-Russian congress of Councils he proclaimed a victory of socialist revolution. He was 54 years old when his heart stopped. But death was impotent before greatness of the Lenin genius. Lenin was with us in boiling of the first five-years periods. Lenin was with us in battles of the Great Patriotic War. Lenin with us and now when the people of the Soviet Union came to new historical boundaries, practically solving problems of construction of communism.

Lenin's business was continued by the party created by it. The hard, but honourable task fell to its lot — to realize the immortal ideas of Lenin, eternally live heritage of his thoughts. And our party — the Communist Party of the Soviet Union — with honor copes with this task» (L. I. Brezhnev, the Lenin course, t. 2, Politizdat, M., 1973, page 83).

V. I. Lenin lives in wise decisions of the XXV congress of the CPSU, in continued fruitful activity of the Central Committee of our party led by the outstanding Marxist Leninist by the Secretary general of the Central Committee of the CPSU companion L. I. Brezhnev. V. I. Lenin lives in the growing power of the Soviet state, in great fulfillments of our people, in continuous care of party of growth of welfare and health protection of the Soviet people. Under V. I. Lenin's banner the world commonwealth of the socialist countries arose and becomes stronger, the international revolutionary liberation movement develops, there is a successful fight for peace and social progress.

Theoretical heritage of V. I. Lenin — great property of our party, all mankind. Creative use of the Lenin ideas in all fields of science and public practice is one of indispensable conditions of the successful solution of fundamental issues of the present.

V. I. Lenin was born 10 on April (22), 1870 in Simbirsk (nowadays Ulyanovsk), in 1887 ended a gymnasium and arrived in Kazan un-t, but soon for active participation in student's disorders was arrested, excluded from un-that and sent to the village of Kokushkino of the Kazan province. In September, 1888 returned to Kazan and entered one of the Marxist circles organized by H. E. Fedoseyev. In a circle K. Marx, F. Engels, G. V. Plekhanov's compositions were studied and discussed. K. Marx and F. Engels's works played a crucial role in formation of outlook of V. I. Lenin.

In 1891 I. Lenin passed without attending lectures of examinations for legal f-t St. Petersburg un-that and since January, 1892 began to work as the assistant to the barrister in Samara. Here he organized a circle of Marxists, established connection with revolutionary youth of other cities of the Volga region. Years of life in Kazan and Samara were of great importance for further activity of V. I. Lenin. These years his Marxist beliefs developed and issued. In August, 1893 I. Lenin moved to St. Petersburg where he soon became the recognized head of the St. Petersburg Marxists. In 1894 V. I. Lenin's work «That it „friends of the people“ and how they are at war against social democrats was published?». In this work V. I. Lenin subjected to the destroying criticism views of populists, pointed to the leading role of working class of Russia in fight against a tsarism and capitalism, for victorious socialist revolution p for the first time put forward the idea of the revolutionary union of workers and peasants, proved need of creation in Russia of originally revolutionary party. In 1895, having combined Marxist working circles in St. Petersburg, V. I. Lenin created the St. Petersburg «Union of fight for release of working class» which was a prototype of revolutionary proletarian party in Russia.

In December, 1895. And. Lenin was arrested and committed to prison, and in 1897 is banished for 3 years to the village Shushensky of the Minusinsk district of the Yenisei province. In exile he wrote more than 30 works, including. «Development of capitalism in Russia» and «Tasks of the Russian social democrats», to-rye played an important role in development of the program, strategy and tactics of future proletarian party.

After return from the reference in the summer 1900 I. Lenin went abroad where he organized the edition of the Iskra newspaper. In May, 1901 in «Spark» there was V. I. Lenin's article «What to begin with?», in a cut he drew up the specific plan of creation in Russia Marxist revolutionary party developed then in the book «What to Do?». At the II congress of RSDRP which was taking place in 1903 process of merging of the revolutionary Marxist organizations and on the basis of the ideological and political and organizational principles developed by V. I came to the end. Lenin, created the proletarian party first in the history which set as the purpose a social reorganization of society for the benefit of workers, overthrow of autocracy in Russia, transfer of all completeness of the political power to working class, creation of a new social system on the basis of freedom, equality and justice. In fight against Mensheviks at a congress and after it V. I. Lenin developed the organizational principles of creation and activity of the party. Its work which came out in 1904 «A step forward, two steps backwards» was devoted to this question.

During revolution of 1905 — 1907 V. I. Lenin directed work of Bolshevik Party on the guide of masses. On III (1905), IV (1906), the V (1907) congresses of RSDRP, in the book «Two Tactics of Social Democrats in Democratic Revolution» (1905) and numerous

articles B. And. Lenin developed and proved the strategic plan and tactics of Bolshevik Party in revolution, criticized the opportunistic line of Mensheviks. At the beginning of November, 1905 it returned from emigration to Russia. On November (21), 1905 arrived 8 to St. Petersburg where directed activity of the Central Committee and St. Petersburg committee of Bolsheviks. After defeat of revolution in December, 1907 I. Lenin was forced to go abroad again.

In the years of reaction (1908 — 1910) V. I. Lenin combated against anti-party currents — liquidators, otzovist, Trotskyists, etc., against a spirit of conciliation to opportunism. In the same time in the work «Materialism and Empiriokrititsizm» (1909) it developed philosophical fundamentals of Marxism and fought back approach of reaction to ideological bases of party. During this period he paid to training of party workers much attention for what in 1911 it organized party school in Lonzhyumo (near Paris).

In January, 1912 in Prague under the leadership of V. I. Lenin the VI RSDRP (Prague) All-Russian conference took place, edges cleared party of Mensheviks liquidators and foreign opportunistic small groups of Mensheviks-golosovtsev, Trotskyists, vperedovets, etc. In decisions of a conference it was paid to program requirements of party in the field of social insurance of workers much attention. On April 22 (on May 5), 1912 there was first issue of the Pravda newspaper which was actually body of the Central Committee RSDRP. V. I. Lenin performed ideological management of the newspaper and almost daily wrote for it. From December 26, 1912 to January 1, 1913 in Krakow and from September 23 to October 1, 1913 in Poronino under the leadership of V. I. Lenin meetings of the Central Committee RSDRP with party workers on the most important questions of revolutionary movement took place.

In the years of imperialistic war V. I. Lenin paid much attention to development of the theory and tactics of party concerning war, the world and revolution. It put forward the slogan of transformation of war imperialistic in war civil. In 1916 the book «Imperialism as the Highest Stage of Capitalism» was written to them.

3 on April (16), 1917 I. Lenin returned from emigration to Petrograd. In the well-known April theses he formulated the brilliant plan of fight for development of burzhuaznodemokratichesky revolution into socialist revolution. Order of Provisional government on arrest [7 on July (20), 1917] forced V. I. Lenin to pass to illegal status, but, and being in an underground, he continued to direct activity of the party. At this time the book «State and Revolution» which is further development of the Marxist doctrine about the state was written to them. In this book V. I. Lenin recovered K. Marx and F. Engels's views distorted by opportunists and on the basis of new revolutionary experience, especially activity of Councils, developed the doctrine of Marxism about the state, formulated the theory of socialist revolution, defined a role and value of dictatorship of the proletariat in transformation about-va. In September, 1917 in letters to the Central Committee, the Petrograd and Moscow committees of Bolsheviks V. I. Lenin called for the organization of an armed revolt and seizure of power, drew up the plan of an armed revolt.

According to V. I. Lenin's report of the Central Committee of party 10 (23) of October, 1917 adopted the resolution on an armed revolt. At the enlarged meeting of the Central Committee of RSDRP(B) 16 on October (29), 1917 I. Lenin subjected to sharp criticism a position of opponents of a revolt. The Central Committee confirmed the Lenin resolution on an armed revolt again. During preparation of a revolt V. I. Lenin directed activity of the Party center, body for the management of a revolt created at a meeting of the Central Committee of RSDRP(B) 16 on October (29), 1917 and which became the leading kernel of Revolutionary-military committee of the Petrograd council. In the letter to the Central Committee of October 24 (on November 6), 1917 I. Lenin demanded to take immediately the offensive, to arrest Provisional government and to take the power, emphasizing that «the delay in a performance of death is similar» (V. I. L of e of N and N, Half-N of SOBR. soch., 5th prod., t. 34, page 436).

In the evening on October 24 (on November 6), 1917 I. Lenin illegally arrived to Smolny for the direct management of an armed revolt. At the II All-Russian congress of Councils which opened on October 25 (on November 7) proclaimed transition of all power in the center and on places in hands of Councils Lenin decrees on peace and about the earth were adopted and the first Workers' and Peasants' government — Council of People's Commissars led by V. I. Lenin is formed.

Great October socialist revolution established dictatorship of the proletariat. The working class became a ruling class, the Communist Party — ruling party. Under trying conditions war and economic ruin the party took the responsibility for destinies of the country. Directed by great Lenin, the party carried out a number of radical democratic and social restructurings in the country, saved the country from economic and national accident, released her St of financial servitude and threat of colonial enslavement, safely and surely led the people on novel ways of construction of socialism. During this period V. I. Lenin developed fundamentals of domestic and foreign policy of the first-ever state of workers and peasants, the plan of creation of fundamentals of socialist economy. Under its management were expropriated from the bourgeoisie and landowners and the earth, factories, the plants, banks, vehicles are turned into public property, bourgeois and landowner is destroyed and the new government and new bodies of the master and local control is created, national oppression is destroyed, gains of revolution were legislatively enshrined in the first Constitution of RSFSR (1918).

In the years of civil war and military intervention V. I. Lenin, being the chairman of the board of National Commissioners and Council of working and country defense, directly directed mobilization of all forces and resources of the country, creation of Red Army and development of plans of the major strategic operations on defeat of White Guard armies and troops of foreign interventionists.

Under the direction of and with direct participation of V. I. Lenin the draft of the second Party program which defined tasks of construction of socialism and accepted by the VIII congress of RCP(b) (March, 1919) was made.

After the victorious end of civil war V. I. Lenin headed fight of party and all workers of the Soviet republic for recovery and further development of economy, directed cultural construction. In the report of the Central Committee to the IX congress it defined tasks of economic construction. Under its management the plan of electrification of the country, and also the first long-term plan of development of the national economy of our country was developed. At the X congress of RCP(b) V. I. Lenin gave deep theoretical and political justification of need of transition from policy of «military communism» to the new economic policy. The congress made the historical decision on replacement of an allotment with a natural tax. In a number of works of 1921 —-1922 he disclosed essence of the new economic policy, characterized problems of creation of socialist culture, a task of ideological work of party and development of science and planned ways of their implementation. Under the direction of party led by V. I. Lenin fundamentals of national policy of the Communist Party were developed and the multinational Soviet socialist state is created. It was organized on the basis of voluntariness and equality of all people, on the basis of preservation of national sovereignty of each Soviet republic which was a part of the USSR. It was the federal proletarian state of new type which was the greatest opening of V. I. Lenin. Formation of the USSR became triumph of the ideas of Leninism and Lenin national policy of the Communist Party. To all progressive mankind the way of permission of an ethnic question, destruction of inequality of the nations and nationalities, a way of association of the people to a uniform brotherly family for creation of socialism and communism was specified. In the same years V. I. Lenin proved the provision on a possibility of peaceful co-existence of the states with various social order which became the general line of foreign policy of the CPSU and Soviet government.

At the end of 1922 — the beginning of 1923 in letters and a number of articles («Pages from the diary», «About cooperation», «About our revolution», «As to us to reorganize Rabkrin», «It is better less and better») V. P. Lenin drew up the plan of creation of socialism in our country, to-ry provided socialist industrialization of the country, electrification of all national economy, carrying out in life of the cooperative plan of transformation of agriculture of the country on the socialist beginnings, implementation of the cultural revolution, consolidation of the union of working class and peasantry, strengthening of friendship of the people of the USSR, improvement of government, providing the leading role of the Communist Party, unity of its ranks, and also generalized experience of world revolutionary movement, gave the characteristic of a new historical era, revealed its features, showed alignment of forces on the international scene and perspectives of development of world revolution. These works became some kind of political testament of V. I. Lenin of party and to the international communistic movement. In May, 1923 I. Lenin because of a disease moved to Gorky. In January, 1924 in state of his health suddenly there occurred sharp deterioration, on January 21, 1924 at 6 hours 50 minutes evenings V. I. Lenin died. The coffin with V. I. Lenin's body is placed in the Mausoleum into Red Square in Moscow.

V. I. Lenin's doctrine generalizes huge experience of the proletariat in his fight for overthrow of a capitalist system and for creation of new, socialist society. Leninism — the greatest doctrine showing to all people a way to communism, a banner in fight of millions of workers for the world and democracy. Revolutionary change of society in the Soviet Union on the basis of Lenin outlines and plans, a victory of socialism and creation of socialist society in the USSR — triumph of Leninism. All fundamental social issues of the present can be estimated and solved truly, based on ideological heritage of V. I. Lenin.

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N. A. Semashko repeatedly pointed that the power source and achievements of the Soviet health care is put that it developed on the basis of program provisions of the Communist Party (see. the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, policy in the field of health protection ) and instructions of its founder — V. I. Lenina.

In V. I. Lenin's works the essence and basic features of Soviet are revealed health care (see), the analysis of its social bases and requirements of party in the field of health protection of workers is given, technical tips on the organization of scheduled and medical maintenance, especially concerning the organization of fight against epidemics, health protection of children, improvement of working conditions and life of workers, to rational use for the benefit of the people of resort resources contain. V. I. Lenin paid to problems of the organization of science, preparation of medical shots much attention, etc.

V. I. Lenin always connected questions of health protection of workers of masses with a certain way of production of material benefits, with an economic and political system of society. V. I. Lenin considered a problem of health protection of working class as an integral part of the general tasks facing the proletariat. In its works brightly and convincingly on the richest actual material the destructive influence of capitalism on physical condition of workers, on their incidence and mortality is shown. «A modern order — V. I. Lenin in article „New slaughter" wrote — always and inevitably, even at the most peace course of affairs, assigns the uncountable victims to working class. Thousands and tens of thousands it is crowded, workers all life over creation of foreign wealth, perish from hunger strikes and from constant malnutrition, die prematurely of the diseases generated by disgusting working conditions, a beggarly situation of dwellings, a lack of rest» (V. I. Lenin, Half-N of SOBR. soch., 5th prod., t. 5, page 14).

In a number of works V. I. Lenin provides documentary exact descriptions of working conditions of the Russian working class in the most various industries of production. E.g., in «Development of capitalism in Russia» V. I. Lenin showed that impetuous capitalist operation in combination with serf remnants, the long working day at the capitalist enterprises reaching 12 — 15 hours, beggarly compensation, absence elementary a dignity. - a gigabyte. working conditions and life, poor housing conditions, unsatisfactory food and extremely insufficient medical aid directly influence an aggravation of symptoms of health and spread of diseases among workers.

In 1913 V. I. Lenin's article «One of great victories of the equipment» devoted to the analysis of social effects of opening English, the chemist Ramsay of a way of direct getting of gas from coal layers was published in the Pravda newspaper. Having pointed that Ramsay opening means huge technical revolution, a revolution in the industry, V. I. Lenin writes that effects of this revolution in the conditions of a modern capitalist system will be at all not what would be caused by this opening at socialism. «Under capitalism "release" of work of millions of miners occupied with getting of coal will generate inevitably mass unemployment, enormous growth of poverty, deterioration of the situation of workers. And the profit on the great invention will be put to themselves in Morgana, Rokfellera, Ryabushinskiye's pocket, by Morozov — with their suite of lawyers, directors, professors and other footmen of the capital.

At socialism use of a way of Ramsay, "releasing" work of millions of miners etc., will allow to shorten for all working hours from 8 o'clock at once, for example, to 7, and even it is less. „Electrification“ of all factories and the railroads will make working conditions more hygienic, will save millions of workers from smoke, dust and dirt, will accelerate transformation of dirty disgusting workshops in pure, light, worthy laboratories of the person» (W. I. Leni of N, Half-N of SOBR. soch., 5th prod., t. 23, page 94).

Here it is so bright and figurative, deeply and strictly scientifically V. I. Lenin showed difference of capitalist relations of production from socialist, noting at the same time that only socialist relations of production will create all necessary premises for improvement of working conditions and life of workers. Having convincingly proved that incidence and mortality of workers — result of the most severe capitalist operation and severe conditions of life, V. I. Lenin showed class limitation of bourgeois health care, a cut, being one of functions of the exploiter state, develops only in that measure in what it is equitable to interests of a ruling class. Only fight of working class is capable to force the bourgeoisie to carry out some measures which are equitable to interests of workers.

Developing program questions of fight of working class, V. I. Lenin constantly defined problems of party in the field of health protection of workers. In the draft of the Program of Social Democratic Party (1895) along with general political requirements demands about prohibition of work of children up to 15 years, legislative establishment of festive rest, supervision of factory apartments, the publication of laws on responsibility of manufacturers for mutilations of workers and «were made... duties of manufacturers to support schools and to give medical care by the worker» (V. I. Lenin, Half-N of SOBR. soch., 5th prod., t. 2, page 86). In 1902 on pages of the Iskra newspaper the draft of the Program of the Russian social democratic Labour Party was published. In the project, and then and in the Program adopted by the II congress in 1903, the big place was allocated to questions of health care. Questions of health protection of the people, in particular insurance of workers, were discussed at the VI (Prague) All-Russian party conference in January, 1912, at a meeting of the Central Committee RSDRP in Krakow passing at the end of the same year. In May, 1917 at the request of the Central Committee RSDRP V. I. Lenin wrote the brochure «Materials but to review of the party program». In it questions of labor protection and health of workers gained further development.

Great attention of V. I. Lenin to questions of health protection of workers, in particular, is demonstrated by a significant amount of literature on health care and medicine in its private library in the Kremlin. Among them «The management to studying of internal diseases» there is K. A. Buynevich, «Microbes and toxins» of E. Byurne, «As affect alcoholic drinks the person» with I. Gaule, books on the organizations of health care including reporting materials about work Narkomzdrava for protection of motherhood and an infancy, fight against tuberculosis, labor protection, concerning hygiene and a dignity. educations, to physical culture and sport and other major problems of health care and medicine. In the section «Periodicals» data on a number of medical magazines, in particular about «The Moscow medical magazine» are placed, the first number to-rogo for 1921 was presented to V. I. Lenin by the manager of the Moscow public health department V. A. Obukh with the following text: «To dear teacher V. I. Lenin who enriched science with researches of diseases of growth for memory of fleeting participation in sanitary education Narkomatov in a week of General cleaning... 1921, on July 1».

In library B. And. Lenina is available also large number of statistical collections, reviews, bulletins; many of them contain data on questions of health care in Russia and foreign countries. The special attention of V. I. Lenin was attracted by sanitary and statistical researches of domestic authors, such, e.g., as N. I. Tezyakov's works «Agricultural workers and the organization behind them sanitary inspection in the Kherson province» (1896), D. N. Zhbankov «A sanitary research of factories and plants of the Smolensk province» (1894 — 1896) and «Influence of otkhozhy earnings on the movement of the population of the Kostroma province according to 1866 — 83», P.F. Kudryavtsev «Alien agricultural workers at the Nikolaev fair in m to Kakhovka (The Taurian province) and sanitary inspection behind them in 1895», M. S. Uvarova «Sanitary position of the Tver province. Statistics of the movement of the population and incidence» (1894), «The collection of statistical data on the Moscow province. Department of sanitary statistics» (1890 — 1902) and many others. Several books from a private library of V. I. Lenin are devoted to the description of the state of health of the people and territorial medicine in Vyatka, Tver and other provinces, in the Podolsk and Serpukhov Counties of the Moscow province, as well as in other districts of the country. V. I. Lenin attentively studied these works what the notes which are available on fields of books, digital calculations, marks testify to.

Analyzing position of the Russian working class and peasantry and formulating requirements of the revolutionary proletariat in the field of health protection, V. I. Lenin leaned on extensive materials domestic a dignity. statistics and on researches of such large figures of territorial medicine, as N. I. Tezyakov, M. S. Uvarov, I. I. Molleson, L. K. Voinov, P.F. Kudryavtsev, E. M. Dementiev, P. A. Sands, A. V. Pogozhey, F. F. Erisman, etc. The advanced territorial doctors did very big and laborious work on the description medical - a dignity. conditions of the population of villages and villages, factories and plants, on identification of a serious sanitary condition of workers. V. I. Lenin widely used the valuable actual material which was contained in works of the advanced figures of territorial medicine in researches on economy of Russia, for exposure of antinational essence of policy of the Russian tsarism, fight against liberal populists, «economists» and liberals.

Use of materials by V. I. Lenin territorial dignity. statistics (see. Territorial medicine ) for the solution of the major questions of economic and political life of Russia lifted public value of activity of health officers, directed attention of doctors to knowledge of the valid reasons heavy a dignity. - a gigabyte. service conditions also forced them to get acquainted with a being of a capitalist system more deeply.

In January, 1914 V. I. Lenin's review of the book «Exhibits on Labor Protection at the All-Russian Hygienic Exhibition in St.-Petersburg in 1913.» made by group of doctors with the assistance of A. N. Vinokurov, A. N. Vasilevsky, D. N. Nikolsky was published in the Prosveshcheniye magazine. V. I. Lenin gave appreciation to the book. «This extremely useful edition gives the short report of that material which was presented concerning labor protection at the All-Russian hygienic exhibition. On a number of questions of working life the edition gives the mass of the valuable statistical data — number of workers in some industries, female and child labor, the working day and the salary, sanitary conditions and labor protection, incidence and mortality of workers, alcoholism, insurance of workers etc... Everything, interested in a working question, all professional, insurance and other working societies, undoubtedly, will use this book. At the following editions it could and would have to turn into the systematic arch of materials concerning situation and labor protection in Russia» (V. I. Lenin. Pauly. SOBR. soch., 5th prod., t. 24, page 282),

V. I. Lenin's Works exerted huge impact on formation of Marxist views of many doctors. «In student circles — N. A writes. Semashko — I tried to polemize with populists, but at me it left not very well: it was badly armed, and populists as V. M. Chernov, and especially old narodovolets, were much more widely-read than me. And suddenly in 1894 I managed to get the gektografirovanny manuscript of V. I. Lenin «That it „friends of the people" and how they are at war against social democrats?». I stuck into the manuscript and could not come off it. There is my real weapon! And here that teacher who will direct my political consciousness!» This book of V. I. Lenin, according to N. A. Semashko, made him the Marxist Leninist forever.

the Decree of Council of People's Commissars about formation of Council of Medical boards. January 24, 1918.

After the victory of Great October socialist revolution before the Communist Party there were tasks of the organization of the new state and construction of socialism. The new Party program developed by V. I. Lenin was accepted by the VIII congress of RCP(b) in 1919. The socialist essence and philosophy of the Soviet health care found the bright embodiment in it: preventive direction, statehood, general availability and free of charge medical aid, unity of medical science and practice, involvement in business of health care of the Soviet public. At the initiative of V. P. Lenin the VIII congress decided to hold resolutely for the benefit of workers such events as improvement of the inhabited places, the organization of public catering on a scientific and hygienic basis, prevention of infectious diseases, creation a dignity. legislations, organized fight against tuberculosis, venereal diseases, alcoholism and other social diseases, providing the population with the public qualified medical aid.

V. I. Lenin cast in the lot revolution, a new social order with struggle for life, health and working ability of the worker, considered that care about health of workers shall become one of functions of the Soviet state. «In the country which is ruined — he said in 1919 — the first task — to save the worker. The first productive force of all mankind is the worker, the worker. If he survives, all of us will save and we will recover» (V. I. Lenin, Poln, SOBR. soch., 5th prod., t. 38, page 359). These words of V. I. Lenin underline a special role, was allocated regions to national health care in construction of the socialist state.

For V. I. Lenin the problem of health protection of workers had not abstractly humanistic character. He emphasized an important role of national health in development of national economy, in construction of socialism. At the same time he saw also other party of this problem, pointing that growth of national economy creates necessary conditions for strengthening of health of workers. Attaching exclusively great value in construction of socialism in our country to development of the industry and electrification, V. I. Lenin repeatedly emphasized that the advanced industry creates necessary hygienic conditions for the prevention of emergence and spread of diseases. «We shall show to peasants — V. I said. Lenin — that the organization of the industry on modern highest technical base, on the basis of electrification which will connect the city and the village, will finish discord between the city and the village, will give the chance culturally to lift the village, to win even the blind corners against backwardness, darkness, poverty, diseases and running wild» (V. I. Lenin, Half-N of SOBR. soch., 5th prod., t. 40, page 109).

Development of economy, raising of material well-being of workers, the general and dignity. cultures of the population were considered by V. I. Lenin as a basis of strengthening of human health and premises for elimination of high incidence. At the same time V. P. Lenin emphasized a big role and actually medical actions. The huge attention of V. P. Lenin to carrying out a dignity is well known. - a gigabyte. and anti-epidemic actions among the population, to questions of medical examination, promoting of requirements of personal and public hygiene among workers, to the organization of public catering on a scientific and hygienic basis, etc. These and other questions (protection of motherhood and the childhood, creation of resorts and rest houses, development of physical culture and sport) found comprehensive lighting in its works.

In the first day of the Soviet power at the Petrograd revolutionary-military committee the medical and sanitary department was created. According to the head of department of M. I. Barsukova, soon took place the first conversation of V. I. Lenin with ranking officers of department, in time a cut Vladimir Ilyich defined problems of health care, a way of its organization and development. V. I. Lenin highlighted political value of the Soviet health care and its public character, indicated the need of active participation in construction of health care of the Soviet public in the person of workers and peasants. He pointed to importance of association around medical and sanitary department of progressively adjusted doctors. Recognizing need to have in the country the highest state authority on the leadership in business of health care, V. I. Lenin considered at the same time that it is not necessary to hurry with his creation. He suggested to organize at first on places medical and sanitary departments of Councils with broad participation in them of workers and peasants and only after explanatory work about expediency of the state center of health care is carried out among workers and necessary experience is gained, to start the organization of the National commissariat of health care.

On December 4, 1917 I. Lenin signed the decree «About appointment of board for management of the Head military and sanitary department», 24. I. 1918 — about education Council of medical boards (see), and 11.VII. 1918 — the decree about establishment of the National commissariat of health care. In the work the National commissariat of health care constantly was guided by indications of the Soviet government and its head — V. I. Lenina. As N. A. Semashko remembered, all fundamental issues, all main bills Narkomzdrava were coordinated with Vladimir Ilyich.

the Resolution of Council of People's Commissars on activity of the National commissariat of health care of July 11, 1918.

In creating favorable conditions for the organization of medical and sanitary service and health care in the country such historical actions of the Soviet state as nationalization of the earth, the Decree on peace, the Declaration of the rights of the people of Russia, laws on the eight-hour working day, on insurance on a case of a disease, etc. had crucial importance. In particular, the Lenin Decree on peace had huge value in fight for improvement of health of workers. The world, health and life of workers are inseparable. «Out of socialism — Vladimir Ilyich said — there is no rescue to mankind from wars, for hunger, from death of millions more and millions of people» (V. I. Lenin, Half-N of SOBR. soch., 5th prod., t. 31, p. 130).

Lenin decrees about the earth, about nationalization of large-scale industry, about the eight-hour working day created political, economic and social and hygienic premises for improvement of material well-being of workers and peasants, improvement of working conditions and life and by that for strengthening of their health. Decrees about insurance on a case of a disease, about nationalization of drugstores, about Council of medical boards, about creation of the National commissariat of health care and many others lifted problems of health care to the level of public, public tasks.

In SNK drafts of almost all decrees defining bases of radical reorganization of system of health protection of the civilian population and army were discussed, specific decisions were made, the basic line of party, the line on implementation of Lenin fundamentals of the Soviet health care was realized in each of to-rykh.

On October 31, 1918 the government signed by V. I. Lenina «The provision on social security of workers» was approved, according to Krom one and all persons could use social security, a livelihood to-rykh is own work. Bodies of social security undertook to carry out measures for the prevention of diseases, mutilations and simplification of their effects. In this document, as well as in the majority of the Lenin decrees relating to health protection of workers, prevention coordinated with medical medicine.

V. I. Lenin's Letter 3. To P. Solovyov from 1/XI 1919 g.

Attaching exclusively great value of the organization of medical aid to the population, V. I. Lenin often put N. A. Semashko's reports at meetings of SNK, attentively listened to N. A. Semashko on receptions. Concerning the organization of health care at meetings of SNK made reports also 3. P. Solovyov, V. M. Bonch-Bruyevich, A. N. Vinokurov, E. M. Sklyansky, etc. V. I. Lenin attentively looked through and studied the materials to the agenda sent by Narkomzdrav and the Head military and sanitary department. At the same time he paid special attention to timely carrying out in life of all made decisions, demanding information from executives on the course of implementation of this or that decision from time to time.

V. I. Lenin signed St. 250 decrees concerning health protection. They reflect policy of the Communist Party and Soviet state in permission of the major problems of health care, they contain guidelines on all major sections of health protection of the people.

V. I. Lenin gave special attention in successful problem solving on health protection of workers in our country to shots. Despite huge state and party work, it repeatedly dealt with issues of preparation and ideological and political education of medical shots, streamlinings of the account and distribution of medical and sanitary personnel.

According to V. I. Lenin's instructions after Great October socialist revolution preparation of medical shots was considerably increased and radical reform of the highest is undertaken medical education (see). Doors of the higher school opened for proletarian youth, working faculties were created. Despite the hardest economic conditions, in to-rykh there was our country, in 1918 — 1922 16 new medical f-comrades of V. I. Lenin were open interested also improvement of substantive position of medics. It found time personally to get acquainted with many medics, to accept them, to have a talk, give advice, to give help. Among the physicians meeting with V. I. Lenin there were not only executives of the Soviet health care — N. A. Semashko, 3. P. Solovyov, M. I. Barsukov, A. N. Vinokurov, V. M. Bonch-Bruyevich (Velichkina), V. A. Obukh, B. S. Veysbrod, but also ordinary doctors, the paramedic, the nurse, to-rykh was interested in activity Vladimir Ilyich.

The persons who do not have the higher medical education often went to that intense time for the leading work on the organization of health care. Among them there was an old St. Petersburg worker, the party member with 1905 A. I. Kruglova, edges in memoirs brought very interesting facts from the conversation with V. I. Lenin concerning its appointment into Okhta to a position of the manager of medical and sanitary department:

«Vladimir Ilyich — she told — all my medical education — Krestovozdvizhensky courses of sisters of mercy. And that I ended them long ago.

Lenin listened carefully to me and is sympathetic.

— Of course — he told — time will come, and doctors will manage medical and sanitary departments, to manage the plants — engineers. For now we are poor in specialists. The intellectuals — at the crossroads. Many wait whose will take. Here also you should go to medical and sanitary department. It is not necessary to make diagnoses and to do operations to you — Ilyich added, grinning. — You in an underground in what were engaged?

— Organizational work.

— Here also organize business. You do not know medicine, but know Okhta. Find among doctors of honest, hard-working people, they will help you. And, the main thing, ask for the help workers. Without working class you will make nothing, and with it will achieve everything...

So it happened that I came to medical and sanitary department with Lenin's parting word».

In the letter sent 1.XI. 1919 3. To P. Solovyov, V. I. Lenin wrote: «t. Nightingales!

1) See my notes and return, please, with your response.

2) Whether there is a statistics: how many doctors in Moscow?

3) Whether are published (where and when?) norms of doctors?

4) — the same: ways of control of doctors (that they not superfluous that they on the account)?

5) Norms (and number of doctors) in St. Petersburg?

6) — in other cities?

7) Whether it is necessary to publish test statistics of doctors and norms? briefly, in newspapers that all could check?

Hi! Lenin» (V. I. Lenin, Half-N of SOBR. soch., 5th prod., t. 51, p. 78).

About great attention, a cut V. I. Lenin gave to a question of the correct distribution of medical shots, the manuscript (report) of the doctor B. S. Veysbrod can demonstrate (of 5.XI.1919) marked V. I. Lenina on it. In this document the question of providing Red Army with medical shots is stated, it is specified the excessive number of the doctors occupied in medical institutions of Moscow and need of mobilization and the direction them the front. On p. they had 2 notes of B. S. Veysbrod where it is reported that nek-ry institutions, napr, clinics of the 2nd MSU, reserved doctors more before imperialistic war, V. I. Lenin emphasized the word «university», on fields delivered to NB, marked off this paragraph, made a footnote, and below wrote: «To check this fact precisely and immediately». On the 4th p. he emphasized the phrase where B. S. Veysbrod pointed to existence in Moscow of unnecessary medical institutions at factories and the plants, with to-rykh workers parted. V. I. Lenin selected all paragraph and made below a footnote: «How many such?». After acquaintance with the manuscript V. I. Lenin sent it to N. A. Semashko with the following letter:

«t. Semashko!

(1) Please, return me this with your response.

(2) Order check of the facts which are specified (that quickly and precisely responsible persons behind the signature gave a statement of these facts).

(3) Veysbrod's project. Your amendments or counterproposal?

Your Lenin» (V. I. Lenin, Half-N of SOBR. soch., 5th prod., t. 51, page 87).

In December, 1919 I. Lenin spoke: «Of course, there are still such doctors who are prejudiced and mistrust against the working power and prefer to receive the royalties from the rich, than to go for heavy fight against a sapropyra. But such the minority, such becomes less, and the majority — such which see that the people fight for the existence, see that he wants to resolve by the fight the main issue of rescue of any culture — and these doctors put not less self-sacrifice, than any military specialist in this heavy and difficult business. They agree to give the strength for work for workers» (V. I. Lenin, Half-N of SOBR. soch., 5th prod., t. 39, page 410). Later, in March, 1920, V. I. Lenin spoke about it again, but already in the past tense: «Once representatives of a medical profession were also impregnated with mistrust to working class, once and they dreamed of return of a bourgeois system. Now and they were convinced that only together with the proletariat it is possible to lead Russia to cultural blossoming» (V. I. Lenin, Half-N of SOBR. soch., 5th prod., t. 40, page 188 — 189).

Highly appreciating a huge role of a people at large in revolutionary change of society, V. I. Lenin repeatedly specified that need of the broadest involvement of workers to construction of socialism and communism. He called involvement of workers to daily participation in government «wonderful substance», the Crimea any capitalist state never had and cannot have. In whatever field of the state and public work he had to be engaged, he did not forget every time about need to involve in vigorous activity in this area broad masses of workers. It entirely belonged also to the Soviet health care, one of features to-rogo just and what it builds an elk on a wide public basis was.

Even during preparation of the October armed revolt of V. I. Lenin, expecting that bourgeois medical institutions and the organizations will not take part in rendering medical aid to wounded fighters of groups of Red guard and revolutionary regiments, charged V. M. Bonch-Bruyevich and T. A. Fortunatova to create the organization of a proletarian Red Cross from workers, revolutionary doctors, paramedics, nurses. Such organization was created and in days of October storm solved problems of rendering medical aid to wounded and sick Red Guards with honor.

At once after Great October socialist revolution V. I. Lenin recommended to employees of Medical and sanitary department of Revolutionary-military committee to involve a people at large in construction of the Soviet health care more widely. When in January, 1919 over the country the threat of mass spread of a typhus hung, the working commissions on fight for purity were created, the general public was involved in fight against epidemics. In the conditions of the Soviet system activity public a dignity received wide scope. organizations. It is necessary to carry to number of the last first of all the Russian society of the Red Cross (see. Union of societies of the Red Cross and Red Crescent of the USSR ). At the initiative of V. I. Lenin Society of the Red Cross reconstructed the work on the new, socialist beginnings and became originally public organization of workers. V. I. Lenin pointed that participation of workers and peasants in construction of health care will rally also health workers. «When the doctor sees — V. I. Lenin said — that in fight against epidemics the proletariat lifts amateur performance of workers, it concerns us already absolutely differently. We have a big layer of these bourgeois doctors, engineers, agronomists, cooperators, and when they see in practice that the proletariat involves more and more broad masses in this business, they will be won morally, and not just dissected politically away from the bourgeoisie. Then our task will become easier. Then they by itself will be involved in our device, will become its part» (V. I. Lenin, Half-N of SOBR. soch., 5th prod., t. 38, page 167).

People's movement for a dignity. culture played a huge role in the prevention of spread of diseases. The idea of the organization of the commissions on fight for purity at factories and the plants belongs to V. I. Lenin. He advised N. A. Semashko to involve in this business of workers and Komsomol: «The young, vigorous youth will be scattered on the yards, on houses — watch what purity it will guide» — V. I. Lenin said.

In difficult years of civil war and foreign intervention V. I. Lenin acted as one of organizers of fight against epidemics. It found reflection in numerous performances of V. I. Lenin, especially in the speech at the VIII All-Russian conference of RCP(b) and in a performance at the VII All-Russian congress of Councils in 1919. «Companions — he said, speaking at a congress — all attention to this question. Or louses will win against socialism, or socialism will win against louses /» (V. I. Lenin, Half-N of SOBR. soch., 5th prod., t. 39, page 410).

During this period V. I. Lenin signed a large number of the decrees of the Soviet government directed to the warning of development of infectious diseases, including the decree of actions for fight against a sapropyra, sanitary protection of dwellings, of obligatory smallpox vaccination, of measures of fight against epidemics, of sanitary check points at stations of Moscow about formation of the special All-Russian commission on improvement of a sanitary condition of the republic, about measures for improvement of water supply and the sewerage, actions against epidemic of cholera, etc.

Remembering this period, N. A. Semashko wrote: «Perhaps, most in all our activity Vladimir Ilyich scarred the field of sanitation and epidemiology. All our main sanitary decrees, up to the last, about sanitary bodies of the republic — were studied by me previously with it and carried out with its whole-hearted support... But the main thing — Vladimir Ilyich showed how it is necessary to put anti-epidemic fight. It connected fight with sypnyaky with all our economic and cultural actions, with all work of our socialist construction».

In January, 1919 I. Lenin in the article «In total on Rabotupo to Food and Transport!» wrote: «Hunger becomes stronger. The sapropyra turns into the most terrible danger. Heroic efforts are necessary, and at us becomes far and far not enough». Mobilizing workers of weight for fight against typhus, V. I. Lenin instilled confidence in success of this fight: «It is possible to save millions and tens of millions from hunger and from typhus, rescue is close, it is possible to overcome and win against the approached hungry and typhus crisis quite. To despair it is ridiculous, silly, shameful» (V. I. Lenin, Half-N of SOBR. soch., 5th prod., t. 37, page 465, 467).

V. I. Lenin's Order Samara gubispolky about cleaning of the city of 6/IV 1920 g.

V. I. Lenin was firmly convinced — and this confidence completely came true — that the fight of workers headed by party against hunger, cold and a sypnyak, for the educated and healthy Russia will terminate in the same resolute victory, as well as fight against White Guards and interventionists. The appeals of the great leader said from a tribune of the VIII All-Russian conference of RCP(b) and the VII All-Russian congress of Councils had huge value for mobilization of all forces of the country — the party and Soviet organizations, medics, economic heads, the general public — on fight against epidemics of parasitic typhus.

V. I. Lenin connected fight against epidemics with fight for a dignity. culture, for model purity. Speaking at a meeting of the Moscow Council in March, 1920, V. I. Lenin spoke: «First of all here we have in line a task to clear Moscow of that dirt and neglect to which it got. We shall carry out it to become an example for all country into which this dirt bearing with itself epidemics and diseases is implemented more and stronger. We shall give this example here, in Moscow, an example what Moscow more than once gave» (V. I. Lenin, Poln, SOBR. soch., 5th prod., t. 40, page 199).

Emphasizing great value, a cut V. I. Lenin gave to holding sanitary actions, V. D. Bonch-Bruyevich provides the following words of V. I. Lenin in the memoirs: «Sanitation — all this. It is prevention of all diseases, and that we very much like to treat patients, very much we sympathize and we regret the dead and very little that we do to prevent this incidence and early, premature death». On carrying out a dignity. actions V. I. Lenin did not feel sorry for any means, but at the same time demanded that these means were spent correctly and effectively.

In this respect V. I. Lenin's letter of N. A. Semashko of October 24, 1921 is of great interest:

V. I. Lenin's Order with the requirement to report how fruit for hospitals, sanatoria and children of August 23, 1919 are distributed.

«t. Semashko!

Having signed the solution of Small SNK on two billion today (it seems, so? I definitely do not remember the sum) on cleaning of Moscow and having read «Situation» Narkomzdrava about a week of improvement of dwellings (Izvestia on July 12), I came to a conclusion that my suspicions (about full worthlessness of statement of all this business) amplify.

Billions will take, will steal and will plunder, and affairs will not make.

In Moscow it is necessary to achieve exemplary (or though tolerable, for a start) purity because a bigger disgrace, than the «Soviet» dirt in the «first» Soviet houses, and it is impossible to imagine. What not in the first houses?

I ask to send me the shortest, but the exact, business, actual report as where left a week of improvement? Whether there is at least one province where something is made not absurdly?

Further. What becomes (and what is made?) in Moscow? who is responsible for work? Whether only «officials» with a magnificent Soviet title, line not understanding, not the aware affairs only signing pieces of paper? Or there are business heads? Who exactly?

To achieve personal responsibility — the most important.

What is made to achieve personal responsibility?

Check through whom?

Through inspectors? How many them? who are they?

Through groups of youth (KSM)? Whether there are those? How many? Where and how proved to be?

What other means of real check?

Whether spend money for purchase of valuable things (a carbolic acid? tools of cleaning? how many it is bought?) or on keeping of new «high-ranking» idlers?

Previous SNK V. Ulyanov (Lenin)» (V. I. Lenin, Half-N of SOBR. soch., 5th prod., t. 53, page 300 — 301).

Making during this period a set of various orders on the organization of fight against epidemic, V. I. Lenin penetrated into details of the organization of this work.

In the letter addressed to N. A. Semashko on April 19, 1921 I. Lenin asked to tell him: whether «there were in Moscow recently (and especially in recent days) cases of cholera and other infectious diseases; how many (if were);

as far as strengthening in comparison with previous;

what measures of sanitary cleaning of the city and what other sanitary actions are decided (if there were such resolutions) and what are accepted» (V. I. Lenin, Half-N of SOBR. soch., 5th prod., t. 52, page 156 — 157).

On July 15, 1921 I. Lenin directed N. A. Semashko's telephone message: «I ask to send urgently present on construction of Kashirsky power plant of one doctor as in view of accumulation of workers on construction epidemic diseases of cholera are possible.

The Chairman of Council of People's Commissars Lenin ordered» (V. I. Lenin, Poln, SOBR. soch., 5th prod., t. 53, page 330).

The bright page in the history of the Soviet health care is the organization protection of motherhood and childhood (see). V. I. Lenin from the first days of revolution showed exclusive care of mothers and children. In December, 1917 and January, 1918 special resolutions were issued, in to-rykh the main objectives and perspectives of development of protection of motherhood and an infancy were stated. In difficult years of foreign intervention and civil war with special sharpness there was a question of food of children. Not only physical development, but also preservation of life of children depended on the solution of this question. In the fall of 1918 I. Lenin signed the decrees directed to improvement of baby food, and in February, 1919 — «About establishment of Council of protection of children». The question of catering services of children in May, 1919 was raised for discussion of the Plenum of the Central Committee of party. Having heard F. E. Dzerzhinsky's report, the Plenum made the decision to prepare the special decree about food of children and to bring it in Council of People's Commissars. Soon after that — on May 17, 1919 — V. I. Lenin signed the decree «About free baby food», according to Krom all food stuffs gave local food bodies to children aged up to 14 years free of charge, at the expense of the state. In June, 1919 in connection with difficult food situation in the country and a huge lack of products for food of the children, especially sick, V. I. Lenin offered Narkomproda of the Crimea all fruit canned food which is available in the Crimea and to send cheese only for food of sick children of the North of Russia. Signed by V. I. Lenin and Narkomprod A. D. Tsyurupy the special order was sent to Simferopol.

In August, 1919 I. Lenina was sent by samples of fruit from the Soviet farms. In reply he wrote: «... I most obediently ask not to do it from now on, etc. not to send some fruit, and to tell me data as in general fruit and t are distributed. and. from the Soviet farms, whether are given in hospitals, sanatoria, to children where exactly how many» (V. I. Lenin, Half-N of SOBR. soch., 5th prod., t. 51, page 37).

In 1919 six-week courses of propagandists and organizers of department of protection of motherhood and an infancy began to function. At the request of listeners on March 8, 1919, on the International Women's Day, V. of II. Lenin made a speech at the first release of these courses. Visit of courses by V. Y. Lenin and his performance before listeners demonstrate that exclusive attention, a cut party and personally V. I. Lenin gave to a problem of protection of motherhood and the childhood.

In March, 1920 business of protection of motherhood and an infancy passed with the solution of SNK from the National commissariat of work and the National commissariat of social security into Narkomzdrav. It reached unity of all actions connected with health protection of mother and child.

All listed actions of party and the government held at the initiative of V. I. Lenin had huge value. They helped elimination of neglect of children, improvement of baby food, provided rapid growth of network of orphanages, houses of the baby and other recreational institutions.

V. P. Lenin paid very much attention to development of Soviet resorts (see). «Resorts for workers» — here the principle which was put forward by V. I. Lenin and is the basis for expansion of sanatoria and resorts in our country.

V. I. Lenin and N. A. Semashko's Telegram to the chairman of Council of People's Commissars of Ukraine about protection of resorts.

On April 4, 1919 I. Lenin signed the decree of SNK «About Medical Areas of Nation-wide Value». According to this decree resorts were nationalized and transferred to hands of workers. On April 15, 1919 I. Lenin sent the telegram to the chairman of Council of People's Commissars and to Narkomvoyen of Ukraine. In it it was told:

«In view of new statement of resort matter in the Republic and for the benefit of providing resorts for treatment and rest to disabled veterans and work, to the exhausted Red Army men and the exhausted workers of the North it is necessary to take urgent measures to protection of the southern resorts won by Red Army...» (V. I. Lenin, Half-N of SOBR. soch., 5th prod., t. 50, page 381 — 382).

After shattering defeat by Red Army of White Guard hordes of the baron Wrangel and foreign interventionists V. I. Lenin signs on December 21, 1920 the decree of SNK «About Use of the Crimea for Treatment of Workers». On July 11, 1921 signed by V. I. Lenin the resolution SNK «About Release and Transfer to Conducting Resort Managements of the Rooms and Buildings Suitable for the Device Sanatorium in Resort Areas» was issued. For creating favorable conditions for mass treatment of workers of SNK suggested to free in resort areas of nation-wide value of the Crimea, the Caucasian groups, Kubano-Chernomorsky and the Odessa estuaries all rooms and buildings suitable for the structure of sanatoria in a month and to transfer them to the jurisdiction of resort managements.

These and subsequent decrees on resort construction predetermined further ways of development of resort business and the principles of the organization of medical service of patients in sanatoria and in resorts.

the Decree of Council of People's Commissars about use of the Crimea for treatment of workers, 21/XII 1920 g.

After signing of decrees V. I. Lenin constantly was interested in the course of resort construction, gave instructions and advice on its improvement. When data on malfunctions of a pas certain resorts, bad treatment and food of patients began to reach V. I. Lenin, he sent P. A. Semashko the letter, in Krom demanded to bring order, to improve the organization of treatment and to take measures to the best providing resorts with food.

«t. Semashko! I even more often receive instructions on the ugliest condition of our resorts in the Crimea and in the Caucasus: bribery, privileges to bourgeoises at the shocking attitude towards workers, and, above all, a full disorder with treatment and, the most important, full neediness of food.

I ask you to present to me exact data what you have it is available, immediately.

And then — about ways of check is more detailed: how many resorts (from how many?) submit the correct reports (quantity of food on — number of patients? on personnel, etc.?) — number of bathtubs (mud), etc.

Previous SNK V. Ulyanov-Lenin» (V. I. Lenin, Half-N of SOBR. soch., 5th prod., t. 53, page 192 — 193), on August 17, 1921 I. Lenin sent to Kharkiv to the national commissioner on food of Ukraine M. K. Vladimirov and to copies to Simferopol in the Master resort control of the Crimea the telegram of the following contents: «Food position of patients of the Crimean health resort, according to the message of Simferopol, extremely heavy, especially concerning bread. Only Ukraine can give the help. Find an opportunity in the most urgent order to send to Simferopol TsUKU ten cars of a zernokhleb, a part flour, two cars of fodder. Report about the taken measures to Bryukhanov, me. Chairman of Council of People's Commissars» (V. I. Lenin, Poln, SOBR. soch., 5th prod., t. 53, page 127 — 128).

In 1920 — 1921 N. A. Semashko on the instructions of V. I. Lenin repeatedly left to resort regions of the country for the organization of work on places. At trips he received, as a rule, the mandates signed by V. I. Lenin granting it the broad rights during the carrying out this work.

On May 13, 1921 I. Lenin signed the decree of Council of People's Commissars about rest houses. In this document having huge value it was told that rest houses will be organized by labor unions for providing to workers and employees of an opportunity to recover the forces and energy during annually next issue received by them in optimum and healthy conditions. In rest houses workers and employees of especially harmful productions and professions are accepted first of all. According to the decree for the organization of rest houses first of all country dachas, the former landowner estates, monasteries, etc. were used. Following instructions of the leader, in the first years of the Soviet power tens of rest houses for workers were created.

To the publication of the decree about rest houses in May, 1920 at the initiative of V. I. Lenin in one of palaces on the Stone island in Petrograd the first rest house was organized. Vladimir Ilyich vividly was interested in destiny of this health resort and on July 19, 1920 came to visit vacationers. «We looked forward to arrival of dear visitor — the first director of rest house A. V. Kondratyev tells — day was given solar, warm, and all vacationers left to meet Lenin. Vladimir Ilyich arrived exactly to 12 o'clock in the afternoon. At this time in rest house the lunch began. The guest was led to the dining room. At dinner Vladimir Ilyich joked, praised cooks and at once created around himself the atmosphere of ease and warmth. After a lunch the workers who had a rest in a health resort arranged a concert. Then Ilyich left to the big hall of a mansion and, having settled directly on steps of the wide marble ladder conducting on the second floor talked to workers. Ilyich answered questions immediately and very in detail. Workers spoke about the needs, made the offers concerning work of rest house. Lenin among vacationers spent four hours».

Much attention was paid by Vladimir Ilyich to questions of the organization of health care in Red Army. He showed fatherlike care of wounded and sick soldiers. E.g., the resolution of Council of Defense og on July 18, 1919, in Krom serves as the evidence of it, in particular, it was written down: «To charge

to Revolutionary Military Council of the Republic to give the exact reference whether has any order of the Chief sanitary director force of the battle-order at the front, and also to give the draft of the resolution of Council of Defense about that such orders were valid fighting».

At the call of V. I. Lenina in the years of foreign military intervention and civil war from among workers of factories and the plants formed a dignity. teams. On short-term courses of nurses and nurses these years a large number of junior medical staff was prepared. For dedicated work and heroism many doctors, the paramedic, nurses, hospital attendants and nurses were awarded the order the Red Banner, mementoes, diplomas of Revolutionary Military Council of the Republic, marked out by thanks in orders of command.

October 29, 1919. The resolution of VTsIK and SNK signed by M. of II. Kalinin and V. I. Lenin the Committee of the help to wounded and sick Red Army men was created. V. I. Lenin's performance in the Wounded Red Army Man magazine with an appeal «To the aid of the wounded Red Army man», finishing which V. 11 was of great importance for activity of committee. Lenin wrote: «Let everyone in the back remembers the debt — to help all, than it is possible, to the wounded Red Army man» (V. I. Lenin, Half-N of SOBR. soch., 5th prod., t. 41, page 156).

V. I. Lenin among the first vacationers of Rest house on the Stone island; a reproduction from a picture it is thin. M. D. Natarevich.

At meetings of Council of Defense V. I. Lenin raised the most various questions relating to health protection of fighters of Red Army. At the same time preparation separate the decision of Council of Defense but to health care passed through the commissions which are specially created for this purpose. Quite often V. I. Lenin, F. E. Dzerzhinsky, V. A. Avanesov, M. S. Kedrov, D. I. Kursky, E. M. Sklyansky, etc. were a part of these commissions. Already one this fact speaks about that huge attention, a cut was given to questions of health care of the Soviet soldiers. The course of preparation of the resolution of Council of Defense on formation of the All-Russian commission on improvement of a sanitary condition of the Republic is of great interest. At three meetings (24, on October 31 and on November 5, 1919) Council of Defense heard on this matter N. A. Semashko's reports, V. A. Avanesov and 3. P. Solovyova. At the last meeting on November 5, 1919 in the resolution of Council of Defense it was written down: «To charge to comrade. To Dzerzhinsky to delegate instead of comrade Avanesov if the last does not recover, one of these odd-come-shortlies his deputy to the commission on development of the draft of the decree, on observation and control on carrying out in life of sanitary actions.

To fill up the commission with comrade Lenin and to charge to it to approve the decree on behalf of Council of Defense. To appoint a meeting of the commission on Friday». Thus, in the commission but development of this resolution V. I. Lenin was directly involved.

According to the resolution of Council of Defense against November 12, 1919. The head military and sanitary department submitted weekly reports on the course of epidemic diseases in Red Army and measures of fight against them. V. I. Lenin carefully studied these reports and demanded that in them each phrase and each figure were attentively checked. At the slightest difficulty in the organizations of the help to wounded and patients the national commissioner of health care N. A. Semashko addressed V. I. Lenin and always got from it support. So, e.g., when there were difficulties with advance by rail of the urgent echelon carrying on the Southern front and Ukraine material resources for fight against a sapropyra, PI. A. Semashko reported on it on V. I. Lenin, to-ry gave the following instruction to the secretary of SNK: «I ask to phone to Markov, having told it that I strenuously support Semashko's request. 18. I. Lenin». As a result of V. I. Lenin's intervention the echelon was urgently advanced and necessary materials are delivered to destination.

the Decree about appointment of board for management of the Head military and sanitary department of December 4, 1917.

V. I. Lenin received numerous reports from fronts on the organization of the help to wounded and patients. Often in these reports commanders of fronts, members of the Councils of War, chiefs of public health services of fronts and armies and the persons sent on the front informed him on the arisen difficulties in medical service of wounded and patients, asked to give help. Among persons, from to-rykh V. I. Lenin obtained such information, there were M. I. Kalinin, G. K. Ordzhonikidze, M. S. Kedrov, N. A. Semashko, 3. P. Solovyov, V. M. Bonch-Bruyevich, B. S. Weiss the ford, M. I. Baranov, M. I. Barsukov, etc. V. I. Lepil very much showed consideration for these messages, immediately instructed employees of the device SNK in acceptance of necessary measures for improvement of service of wounded and sick soldiers. Having studied the letter of the commissioner of the Saratov regiment from 27 X11 1918 g, in Krom V. I was reported about shortcomings of supply with regimentals, military equipment and bad medical care. Lenin emphasized the words «soldiers are undressed, undressed, soldiers without tools, without medical care» twice and on the single sheet wrote: «In the All-Russian bureau the soldier. commissioners and in the Highest Military Inspection for notification and taking a step. 27/XII Lenin». In response to the telegram of RVS of East front of November 1, 1919 about assistance in the equipment of hospitals in connection with epidemic of a sapropyra menacing near Ufa V. I. Lenin requested S. D. Markov and V. V. Schmidt about what is made by them concerning the help to East front (see. Lenin Saturday., XXIV, page 295 — 296). The commander of the 8th army reports in the telegram to V. I. Lenin about mass character of epidemic of typhus and asks to authorize early release of physicians of the 5th course Voronezh un-that. V. I. Lenin instructs N. A. Semashko to present the draft of the resolution to Council of Defense (see. Lenin Saturday., XXIV, page 296).

On January 5, 1920 the note from G. K. Ordzhonikidze was told by phone for V. I. Lenin: «Give, please, to Vladimir Ilyich a note. In Kharkiv, Ekaterinoslav and other cities of Ukraine epidemic of typhus rages. All population and hospitals are plundered by Denikintsami and makhnovets. Patients roll without linen or in tatters, are covered by louses. All measures taken by us due to the lack of linen come down to zero. I address you, I ask your order about immediate dispatch not less than 20 thousand pairs of linen or material. The medical unit of the Southern front refused behind absence. I wait for your order. With hot greetings of Ordzhonikidze. On January 5, 1920». On a note V. I. Lenin's resolution: «It is urgent: by Semashke's phone» (see. Lenin collection, XXXV, page 101). On January 6, 1920 the national commissioner of health care N. A. Semashko the telegram reported on V. I. Lenin on the taken measures for assistance to the Southern front.

At the direction on the front nek-ry doctors received recommendatory notes from V. I. Lenin. So, e.g., it was specified in the recommendatory note addressed to B. S. Veysbrod given on October 27, 1919: «To all Soviet institutions and military authorities. The bearer is comrade Boris Solomonovich Veysbrod, the doctor, personally to me it is known. Old party worker. I ask to treat him with m trust are full and to render him all assistance. Previous SNK V. Ulyanov (Lenin)» (V. I. Lenin, Half-N of SOBR. soch., 5th prod., t. 51, page 74). On October 31, 1919 signed by V. I. Lenin addressed to B. S. Veysbrod the special mandate providing it as to the chairman of the Extraordinary Commission on fight against typhus near East front the huge rights was issued.

On November 5, 1919 I. Lenin signed the resolution of Council of Working and Country Defense on fight against a sapropyra on East and Turkestan fronts. In this resolution were instructed, belonging to all troops of Red Army. In particular, it was offered to organize supply of medical and sanitary institutions with firewood and other types of fuel first of all, to strengthen supply of hospitals, to make repair of buildings of military medical institutions out of turn. Executive committees of local councils were offered to provide transport vehicles for unloading of hospitals and a dignity. trains. For the first time in this resolution as one of measures of prevention of distribution of epidemic of sypny and returnable typhus, full closing of private passenger traffic on a nek-eye to the most threatened directions was provided.

In 1919 I. Lenin visited the 151st military hospital, talked to wounded and patients. Addressing medical staff of hospital, A.S. Semenov remembers, V. I. Lenin told: «You had a big historical mission — you treat defenders of revolution and freedom. Make everything that they recovered quicker and left hospital. It you will make the big contribution to business of revolution. The Soviet power and Red Army men and commanders will be grateful to you» (Workers and peasants of Russia about Lenin. M, 1958, page 170 — 173).

V. I. Lenin highly appreciated heroic work of doctors, paramedics, nurses and hospital attendants on fronts of civil war where they made a lot of sacrifice in fights for good reason of working class. «Perhaps, after the military front no other work gave so many victims as yours» — V. I. Lenin said (V. I. Lenin, Poln, to SOBR. soch., 5th prod., t. 40, page 188).

From numerous memories of V. I. Lenin it is visible that care of people was its characteristic feature. He always cared for companions, helped everyone. N. K. Krupskaya noted that, despite exclusive employment of V. I. Lenin, she never heard from it failure when business went about the help to people. With big warmth N. A. Semashko, B. S. Veysbrod, A. M. Gorky, K. Tsetkin and many others remembered this trait of character of V. I. Lenin. About same numerous Lenin documents testify.

In the letter to N. A. Semashko on February 28, 1921 I. Lenin wrote:

«Nikolay Aleksandrovich!

At me comrade Ivan Afanasyevich Cheku sits it is new, very interesting labor peasant in own way propagandizing fundamentals of communism. He lost glasses, paid 15 000 rubles for rubbish! Whether it is impossible to help it to get good points?

Very much I ask to help and ask the secretary Vashego to tell me whether it was possible. Your Lenin» (V. I. Lenin, Half-N of SOBR. soch., 5th prod., t.52, page 83 — 84).

Having learned that in Administration of SNK 3 days will not work the elevator, V. I. Lenin writes on September 19, 1921 a note to I. I. Miroshnikov: «I was told that the elevator will not operate on September 20, 21 and 22.

It is top of a disgrace. There are people with sore heart by which rise is harmful and dangerous. I one thousand times charged to watch the elevator, having designated the responsible person.

I issue you the strict reprimand, I charge to establish guilty of not prevention in time; report the list of responsible persons once again, disciplinary measures of Previous SNK V. Ulyanov (Lenin)» (V. I. Lenin, Half-N of SOBR. soch., 5th prod., t. 53, page 205).

V. I. Lenin and N. K. Krupskaya in the 151st summary evacuation hospital. Moscow, 1919; a reproduction from a picture it is thin. M. D. Natarevich.

V. I. Lenin emphasized value of science and technology in socialist construction more than once. Science, he said, shall help masses with creation of a social order without exploiters. V. I. Lenin considered development of science and implementation of its achievements in practice a mighty growth factor of productive forces of society. He wrote that the science shall meet requirements of economic and cultural construction that an indispensable condition of fruitful development of science is its continuous communication with * life, with production, with tasks of construction of socialism and communism.

Sensitively also Vladimir Ilyich showed consideration for needs of scientific institutions, gave instructions and advice concerning their work. He highly appreciated and supported the largest figures of the Russian science giving the knowledge to the Soviet people — K. A. Timiryazeva, I. Pavlov, I. V. Michurin, H. E. Zhukovsky, K. E. Tsiolkovsky, And. M. Gubkina, etc., showed exclusive care of improvement of life of scientists, of creation of necessary conditions for their scientific work.

K. A. Timiryazev sent to Lenin the book «Science and Democracy», with a text: To «Dear Vladimir Ilyich Lenin from K. Timiryazev considering to be for happiness his contemporary and the witness of his nice activity». In this book Timiryazev called people of science for unity with the working people, exposed slander of imperialists on the Soviet power and on Bolsheviks. Having read the book, Vladimir Ilyich answered Timiryazev: «Dear Klimenty Arkadyevich! Many thanks to you for your book and kind words. I was delighted directly, reading your notes against the bourgeoisie and for the Soviet power. Strong, strong I shake your hands and heartily I wish you health, health and health!» (V. I. Lenin, Half-N of SOBR. soch., 5th prod., t. 51, page 185).

the Resolution of Council of Work and Defense on the termination of eviction of military medical institutions on the Western front, on November 24, 1920.

V. I. Lenin considered one of the most important tasks implementation of continuous communication of Marxist philosophy with natural sciences. It is necessary, he wrote, to watch closely questions which are put forward by the latest revolution in the field of natural sciences, to generalize achievements and opening of natural sciences and to draw from them dialektiko-materialistic conclusions. Reminding what from abrupt withdrawal pains, to-ruyu endures modern natural sciences, reactionary schools and shkolka, the directions and a napravlenyitsa will be born pretty often, V. I. Lenin urged to expose attempts to idealistically interpret the greatest opening in the field of natural sciences. At the same time, V. I. Lenin noted, the natural sciences progress so quickly, in all its areas there are such deep withdrawal pains that not to do it without philosophical conclusions at all. And scientists can find the answer to those philosophical questions which are raised by revolution in natural sciences only in dialectic materialism, «... without solid philosophical justification — Lenin wrote — any natural sciences, no materialism can sustain fight against an impact of the bourgeois ideas and recovery of a bourgeois world view. To sustain this fight and to carry out it up to the end with full success, the estestvennik shall be the modern materialist, the conscious supporter of that materialism which is presented by Marx, that is shall be the dnalektichesky materialist» (V. I. Lenin, Half-N of SOBR. soch., 5th prod., t. 45, page 29 — 30).

In the first years of existence of the Soviet power at the initiative of V. I. Lenin the wide network of medical research in-t and laboratories was created. So, in 1918 it was organized in-t of microbiology and epidemiology in Saratov, Bacteriological by in-t in Tiflis, in 1919 in Moscow Ying t of infectious diseases of I. I. Mechnikov, Research chemical and pharmaceutical was created by in-t Central bacteriological in-t. In 1921 in Moscow opened State venereologic in-t, in 1922 — Ying t of physical therapy and orthopedics and Central in-t of protection of motherhood and an infancy, in 1923 — Ying t of social hygiene and Ying t of occupational health. The wide network of research in-t was created not only in the center, but also on the periphery. In many federal republics were open in-you occupational health and occupational diseases.

In the same time in the country the whole network special resort research establishment is created. In July, 1920 it was founded State balneal by in-t in Pyatigorsk with clinics in Kislovodsk, Yessentuki, Pyatigorsk and Zheleznovodsk. In November, 1920 it was organized State physiobalneal by in-t in Tomsk. In 1920 it was organized State scientific by in-t of national health care, combining several scientific institutions in the structure.

In 1919 I. Lenin called to himself doctors of various specialties and talked to them concerning the organization of research institutes. In October, 1919 II. Lenin accepted the prof. V. N. Tolkova and talked to it about household position of scientists.

The numerous documents published in Complete works of V. I. Lenin and in Lenin collections reflect hot interest of Vladimir Ilyich in all researches, inventions, opening, his care of the Soviet scientists, their work and life invariable, full of a heart-felt and thin step. In 1919 SNK decided to found the Commission on improvement of life of scientists. According to the decision of the government it was headed by A. M. Gorky.

In Committee of foreign literature V. I. Lenin specified in the letter of September 30, 1921 that the main task of this Committee «... to achieve that in Moscow, Petrograd and the large cities of the Republic it was concentrated in special libraries on 1 copy of all foreign the latest technical and scientific (chemistry, physics, electrical equipment, medicine, statistics, economy and so forth) magazines and books of 1914 — 1921 and regular obtaining all periodicals would be adjusted» (V. I. Lenin, Half-N of SOBR. soch., 5th prod., t. 53, with, 228).

A lot of very interesting data on V. I. Lenin's role in development of the Soviet science in the first years of the Soviet power are provided by F. N. Petrov in the instructive book «65 years in the ranks of Lenin party» and in other works: «Lenin, highly appreciating scientific works of the academician I. P. Pavlov, charged to us to find out what it needs. Carrying out Ilyich's order, I visited laboratory of the scientist. Pavlov met me by a question: «How the Russian science will develop further? At me dogs die — to feed there is nothing, cameras for experiences collapsed. What to do?»

V. I. Lenin's Note of N. A. Semashko, on April 25, 1922.

I reported that Vladimir Ilyich instructed to create normal conditions for his scientific activity. It mistrustfully shook the head: «And unless you can give money, gold is necessary, it is necessary to buy devices abroad». I answered that the Soviet power will not regret gold for science. After some thought Ivan Petrovich made the list of devices on which acquisition about one thousand rubles were required by gold. Soon all this was bought abroad. And when I came to I. P. Pavlov again, he with huge pleasure showed me new cameras and asked to convey thanks to Vladimir Ilyich.

Resolution of Council of People's Commissars on creation of conditions for I. P. Pavlov's work, on January 24, 1921.

So thanks to cares and Ilyich's wisdom old scientists like trust to the Soviet power and joined in construction of new life. As a matter of fact, Lenin gave that mighty impetus to the Soviet science which led it to today's triumphal victories».

Showing exclusive care of people of science, of conditions of their work and life, V. I. Lenin signed on January 24, 1921 the resolution SNK «About the Conditions Ensuring Scientific Functioning of the Academician I. P. Pavlov and His Employees».

On March 1, 1920 I. Lenin made the speech at the II All-Russian congress of workers of medical and sanitary work, in a cut he urged medics to use the best efforts in fight for improvement of the republic. «Cooperation of representatives of science and workers — V. I. Lenin at a congress said — only such cooperation will be able to destroy all oppression of poverty, diseases, dirt. And it will be made.

The union of representatives of science, the proletariat and the equipment will not be resisted by no dark force» (V. I. Lenin, Half-N of SOBR. soch., 5th prod., t. 40, page 189).

Going on the way specified by V. I. Lenin, carrying out his precepts, the Soviet people achieved outstanding achievements in the field of economy, culture, science and technology, in the field of increase in material well-being, and also in development of health care and increase in level of health of the Soviet people.

A. M. Gorky, V. A. Steklov, V. N. Tonkov on reception at V. I. Lenin; a reproduction from a picture it is thin. I. P. Neznaykina.

For years of the Soviet power depending on tasks of socialist construction, development of economy and achievements of medical science forms and methods of work of bodies and healthcare institutions changed. However the main Lenin principles, such as the principle of prevention, free of charge and general availability of the qualified medical care, unity of the theory and practice, participation of workers in construction of the Soviet health care, remain firm so far. These important requirements in the field of health care which are written down in the Party program developed by V. I. Lenin and got at the VIII congress of RCP(b) gained further creative development in the new Program of the CPSU and decisions of the XXV congress. They found bright reflection in resolutions of the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR «About measures for further improvement of national health care» (1977) and «About further development of medical science in the Areas of Siberia and the Far East» (1979).

* * *

Life and V. I. Lenin's activity is a model of dedicated service to mankind, it is many-sided and immense. All his life was devoted to one noble purpose — business of release of workers from any oppression, business of fight for socialism and communism.

In the history of mankind the huge figure of V. I. Lenin as the greatest of people of our era who specified to all people of the world a way to original freedom and happiness rises. The light genius of the great teacher of workers of the whole world W. I. Leni of nn, whose name will live forever, lights up to mankind a way to communism.

The unfading image of V. I. Lenin, his great sublime ideas inspire workers on fight against powers of darkness of reaction, the evil and oppression, for creation and consolidation of society on the basis of original justice, true equality of all people, society in which free, all-round development of the personality, full satisfaction of her material and spiritual needs will be provided.

Time not imperiously over V. I. Lenin's genius. Having died, he lives not only in memory of descendants, but also in their affairs and courageous aspirations directed to the benefit of people. The great ideas of V. I. Lenin which are creatively developed by the Communist Party created by it are realized, find immortality. Their celebration is around the world inevitable because they reflect the natural, forward course of history, announce bright future to which uncontrollably there is all mankind.

«For millions of oppressed and exploited, all workers — it is said in the Resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU „About the 110th anniversary since the birth of Vladimir Ilyich Lenin" — the Leninism became a symbol of social updating of the world, a revolutionary banner of our era.

... Is not present and cannot be Marxism without that new that was brought in its development by Lenin. The Leninism is a Marxism of a modern era, the uniform, complete, continuously developing doctrine of the international working class». («Truth» of December 16, 1979).

A name of Lenin, put it and the doctrine will remain for ever also the millennia.

Lenin's business — is invincible!

See also Legislation on health care , Health care , Communist Party of the Soviet Union , Resorts , Meditsina , Health care workforce , Medical education , Ministry of Health , Protection of motherhood and childhood , Labor protection , Sanitary legislation , Sanitary education , Sanitary and epidemiologic service , Social security , Social insurance , Union of Soviet Socialist Republics .

Bibliography: Lenin V. I. Development of capitalism in Russia, Half-N of SOBR. soch., t. 3, page 1; e of about, Materials for development of the RSDRP program. Draft of the program of the Russian social democratic Labour Party, in the same place, t. 6, page 411; it, Materialism and empiriokrititsizm, in the same place, t. 18, page 7; it, VI RSDRP 5 — 7 (18 — 30) (Prague) All-Russian conference of January, 1912, in the same place, t. 21, page 121; it, «Scientific» system of squeezing of sweat, in the same place, t. 23, page 18; it e, One of great victories of the equipment, in the same place, page 93; it, Working class and neomaltuzianstvo, in the same place, page 255; it, the Review «Exhibits on labor protection at the All-Russian hygienic exhibition in St.-Petersburg in 1913», in the same place, t. 24, page 282; it, Imperialism as the highest stage of capitalism, in the same place, t. 27, page 299; it, Meeting of the Petrograd council of working and soldier's deputies on October 25 (on November 7), 1917, in the same place, t. 35, page 2; e of about e, the Second All-Russian congress of councils of working and soldier's deputies on October 25 — 26 (on November 7 — 8), 1917, in the same place, page 7; e of about, the VIII congress of RCP(b) on March 18 — 23, 1919, in the same place, t. 38, page 125; it, the Great initiative (About heroism of workers in the back. Concerning «communistic community work days»), in the same place, t. 39, page 1; e of about e, the VIII All-Russian conference of RCP(b) on December 2 — 4, 1919, in the same place, page 339; it, VII All-Russian congress of Councils on December 5 — 9, 1919, in the same place, page 385; it, the Speech at the II All-Russian congress of workers of medical and sanitary work on March 1, 1920. Legal record, in the same place, t. 40, page 188; it, to the aid of the wounded Red Army man!, in the same place, t. 41, page 156; it, About the conditions ensuring scientific functioning of the academician I. P. Pavlov and his employees. Resolution of Council of People's Commissars, in the same place, t. 42, page 262; The CPSU in resolutions and decisions of congresses, conferences and plenums of the Central Committee, t. 1 — 12, M., 1970 — 1978; About preparation for the 100 anniversary since the birth of Vladimir Ilyich Lenin, the Resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU, M., 1968; The Resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU on the 110th anniversary since the birth of Vladimir Ilyich Lenin, the Truth of December 16, 1979; Ashurkov E. D., V. I. Lenin and health protection of the people, M., 1965, bibliogr.; V. I. Lenin. Biography, M., 1972; Memories of physicians of V. I. Lenin, sost. I. A. Slonimskaya and E. D. Ashurkov, M., 1969; D eme-t of e r G. S. Lenin about health protection of workers and physical culture, M., 1965; Lenin (Ulyanov) Vladimir Ilyich, BSE, 3rd prod., t. 14, page 294, M., 1973; Lenin decrees on health care, 1917 — 1921, M., 1970; To Sweat l about in B. M., V. I. Lenin and health protection of the Soviet people, L., 1969, bibliogr.

B. M. Potulov.