LENINGRAD RESORT AREA — climatic and balneogryazevy resorts on the coast of the Gulf of Finland: Petrodvorets, Sestroretsk, Solar, Repino, Komarov, Zelenogorsk, Ushkovo, Serov, Youth, Smolyachkovo, Privetninskoye.
Development of the resort area on the coast of the Gulf of Finland began in 18 century when after the basis of St. Petersburg about it summer imperial residences Peterhof appeared, Pavlovsk, Gatchina, Tsarskoye Selo, Oranienbaum and country construction on sowing began to develop intensively. - vost. coast of the Gulf of Finland. After Great October socialist revolution palaces, mansions and estates were nationalized and turned into health resorts for the people. For years of the first five-years periods the big network of sanatoria and rest houses on the coast of the Gulf of Finland was created, but during the Great Patriotic War almost all health resorts were destroyed. After the end of war were recovered destroyed a dignity. - hens. institutions construction of new also began.
Landscape sowing. - vost. parts of the coast of the Gulf of Finland (Karelian Isthmus) it is various and colourful: big coniferous arrays are replaced by light deciduous groves. The timberland is interrupted by picturesque valleys of the rivers and streams, small forest lakes, ponds and sites of granite boulders. Beauty sowing. the nature it is emphasized with wide water perspective of the Gulf of Finland. Along the coast park forests extend. Nek-ry parks are monuments of landscape gardening art of 18 century. About Sestroretsk on St. The flood in 1917 disappeared V. I. Lenin. In Repino there is I. E. Repin's memorial estate «Penates» and a grave of the artist.
The most part of the coast is occupied with sandy beaches. The strip of the dunes overgrown with a softwood forest going along beaches creates the special microclimate, shadow and solar zones convenient for a klimatolecheniye.
A swimming season — from the middle of June to the second half of August; mean water temperature in the Gulf of Finland in June 17 °, in July 19,3 °, in August 17,9 °. The underbody of a coastal slope almost throughout slowly goes down, forming sandy shallow water on several tens and even hundreds of meters from the line of the coast that is especially convenient for bathing of children.
Climate of the resort area seaside, cool and wet, with moderately cold winter and in not hot summer. Average temperature of the coldest month — February — 8,7, the warmest — July 17,4 °, in separate days in the winter the minimum temperature can reach — 39 — 40 °, in the summer the maximum temperature 34 °. A median number of hours of sunshine in a year — 1628. Along the Gulf of Finland there passes one of the main ways of movement of cyclones therefore big variability of weather, especially and is characteristic in the fall of resorts of the coast in the winter. During passing of a cyclone sharp daily fluctuations of atmospheric pressure are noted (to 30 mm of mercury.). As a result of intake of warm air masses from Atlantic thaw, in the summer — cloudy and cool weather is often observed in the winter. Annual average relative humidity of air apprx. 80%, the smallest (in May) — 60%, the greatest (in December) — 90%. An annual average amount of precipitation of 600 mm with a maximum in July and August.
In addition to seaside climate, the main natural to lay down. factors of L. to. h. are sapropelic to lay down. dirt of the Sestroretsk field adjoining the lake. Flood, and chloride sodium mineral water. Stocks of mineral water in the resort are very big, it can be received on any site of the territory to the south of Sestroretsk. Degree of a mineralization of water increases towards the South from it. A formula of chemical composition of the water removed to the Earth's surface near Sestroretsk:
Water contains also valuable microelements and to 3,5 nkyuri/l radon. Water is used both for external use, and for drinking treatment.
In the territory of sanatorium Petrodvorets water of higher mineralization is removed to the Earth's surface:
Water contains about 21 mg/l of bromine.
V L. to. h. (for 1979) 7 sanatoria and 2 sanatorium boarding houses for adults, 16 children's sanatoria, 5 boarding houses of rest, 14 rest houses, 3 tourist bases, a large number of sanatoria dispensaries, recreation facilities, summer camps function. Among sanatoria such large, as «Northern Riviera», «The Sestroretsk resort», «The black small river», Repino.
Indications: diseases of bodies of blood circulation, breath of not tubercular character, digestion, musculoskeletal system, nervous system.
Contraindications — see. Sanatorium selection, table .
Bibliography: Agroclimatic resources of the Leningrad region, L., 1971; Davidenko A. I. Seetroretsk, L., 1962; Health resorts of labor unions of the USSR, under the editorship of II. I. Kozlova, page 176, M., 1979; The Catalogue of mineral waters of the USSR, under the editorship of V. V. Ivanov, page 24, M., 1969; The Resorts of the USSR, under the editorship of S. V. Kurashov, etc., page 229, M., 1962.
M. M. Harlova.