LEGISLATION ON HEALTH CARE

From Big Medical Encyclopedia

LEGISLATION ON HEALTH CARE — set of the laws, legal acts and norms issued by the state concerning health care which govern the public relations in the field of public health care. The laws establishing requirements and standards in the area a dignity concern to them. - a gigabyte. okhran: work and life of the population (see. Sanitary legislation ), resolutions concerning fight against infectious and other diseases, and also acts on the organization of health care.

Contents and character of the legislation on health care are defined by the political and social order.

Soviet 3. about z. reflects policy of the Communist Party and Soviet state in the field of health protection of the people, promotes further improvement of the state of health of the population, reduction of incidence, increase in life expectancy of people, serves strengthening of legality in the field of the public relations on protection of national health.

In pre-revolutionary Russia the uniform operating controls health care in the country was not. 3. about z. did not concern questions of the organization of medical aid to the population, and separate regulations carried hl. obr. sanitary and police character.

Long before the revolution, in 1895 — 1896, developing the party program, V. I. Lenin in work «The project and an explanation of the program of Social Democratic Party» made demands of «legislative restriction of the working day with 8 hours in days», «the law on a duty of manufacturers to support schools and to give medical care by the worker» (V. I. Lenin. Complete collection soch. Prod. 5, t. 2, page 85 — 86).

Already in the first Party program adopted at the II congress of RSDRP in 1903 tasks and requirements of the proletariat in the field of health protection are formulated. «For the benefit of protection of working class from physical and moral degeneration, as well as for the benefit of development of its ability to liberating fight» (the CPSU in resolutions and decisions of congresses, conferences and plenums of the Central Committee. Part 1, prod. 7, page 71) the party demanded introduction of the 8-hour working day, free medical aid with saving the contents during a disease; the state insurance of workers on a case of an old age and disability, prohibition of child labor and female labor in harmful conditions; establishments dignity. supervision over the enterprises, etc.

In the first days of Great October socialist revolution after decrees «About the world», «About the earth» and «The declaration of the rights of the people of Russia» the resolutions «About the 8-Hour Working Day, Duration and Distribution of Operating Time», «About Free Transfer to Hospital Cash Desks of All Medical Institutions and Enterprises», «Provision on Insurance on a Case of a Disease», * which were a basis for development of the legislation on the free, public and qualified medical aid by the worker, formation of the principles of the Soviet health care were adopted.

Formation 3. the lake was carried out according to V. I. Lenin's instructions. He personally signed more than 200 resolutions and decrees on the organization of medical aid by the worker, social insurance, fight against epidemics, a dignity. to improvement, etc.

on July 11, 1918. And. Lenin signed the decree about creation of the first-ever central public authority of health care — the National Commissariat of health care of RSFSR that marked the birth of the most progressive socialist health system.

In the Program of the Communist Party adopted by the VIII congress in 1919 the basic direction of development of the Soviet health care was defined. Among the major actions «creation of the sanitary legislation» was provided.

The legislation on protection of national health was created and developed further according to directives and resolutions of congresses, plenums of the Central Committee, resolutions of congresses of Councils and the Soviet government. 3. the lake extended the influence not only on bodies of health care, but also on all industries of the national economy which were obliged to carry out norms and rules on public health care.

In the years of civil war by tasks 3. about z. there were a help to the front, ensuring wellbeing of the back, health protection of children, fight against epidemics. Decrees of Council of People's Commissars of RSFSR «About establishment of Council of protection of children», «About obligatory smallpox vaccination», the resolution of Council of Workers' and Peasants' defense on formation of the special All-Russian commission on studying of a sanitary condition of the republic (1919), decrees of Council of People's Commissars of RSFSR «About actions for a sapropyra» (1919), «About transfer of all business of protection of motherhood and an infancy to maintaining Narkomzdrava», «About use of the Crimea for treatment of workers» (1920), «About rest houses», «About health protection of teenagers and children of RSFSR» (1921), etc. are issued.

During fight for recovery of the national economy resolutions of Council of People's Commissars of RSFSR «About actions for fight against malaria» (1924), «About providing country people with medical care» are issued (1924), the resolution of VTsIK and Council of People's Commissars «About bases of creation of the normal volost (regional) organization of health care» (1924).

During fight for socialist industrialization and collectivization of agriculture according to the resolution of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) of the Central Committee «About medical care of workers and peasants» (1929) 3. about z. reflects policy of the party on further increase in level of medical service of workers. The first-priority attention is paid to improvement to lay down. - professional, the help in the main industrial regions of the country and expansion of rural medical institutions.

In 1930 — 1940 in the conditions of still considerable prevalence of infectious diseases paramount value in 3. about z. it was given to fight against infectious diseases, improvement a dignity. conditions of the country. The resolution of Council of People's Commissars of the USSR (1935) formed All-Union state sanitary inspection at Council of People's Commissars of the USSR for merging of bodies state a dignity. inspections in all territory of the country and the managements of them. Created in a health system a dignity. - epidemiol. the service is guided in the activity by the sanitary legislation, a cut the dignity regulates carrying out. - a gigabyte. and protivoepid. the actions obligatory for execution of public administration by appropriate authorities by the enterprises, economic and other organizations for elimination of influence of harmful environmental factors on health of the population, the prevention and decrease in incidence.

Resolutions of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) of the Central Committee «About medical shots» (1931), the Central Election Commissions of the USSR «About training of doctors» (1934) and Council of People's Commissars of the USSR «About preparation of average medical, dental surgery and pharmaceutical shots» (1936) were planned specific measures for increase in number of medical higher education institutions, improvement of training of doctors and other medics.

The VIII Extraordinary congress of Councils adopted on December 5, 1936 the Constitution of the USSR, edges marked a clear victory of a socialist system in the USSR. The Constitution contained a number of articles relating directly to health care.

In the section «Basic Rights and Duties of Citizens» the rights for free medical aid, for material security in old age, in case of a disease and disability, on protection of interests of mother and child were written down. So, with development of the Soviet state its legislation, including and the legislation in the field of health care developed and improved.

In 3. about z. in days of the Great Patriotic War the actions caused by a situation of wartime were provided. Special attention was paid to rendering medical aid by the wounded, recovery of their fighting capacity, prevention of epidemics, the help to children and mothers. In 1944. The presidium of the Supreme Council of the USSR issued the Decree «About Increase in the State Help to Pregnant Women, Having Many Children and Lonely Mothers, Strengthening of Protection of Motherhood and the Childhood, about Establishment of a Honorary Title „Mother Heroine “and Establishment of the Award „Maternal Glory“ and Medal „a Medal of Motherhood “».

In directives XIX, XX, XXI of congresses of the CPSU the basic direction is specified further improvement of medical aid to the population, development of network to lay down. - professional, institutions.

The Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR in 1960 adopted the resolution «About Measures for Further Improvement of Medical Care and Public Health Care of the USSR».

The XXII congress of the CPSU adopted the new Party program — the program of construction of communistic society. In the Program of the CPSU the special section «Care about Health and Increase in Life Expectancy» is devoted to health care. In the program it is told: «The socialist state — the only state which undertakes care of protection and continuous improvement of health of all population. It is provided with system of social and economic and medical actions. The wide program directed to the prevention and resolute reduction of diseases, elimination of mass infectious diseases on further increase in life expectancy will be carried out» (the Program of the CPSU, M., prod. 1976, page 96).

Thus, in the Party program further development of philosophy of the Soviet health care is defined.

Decisions XXIV and XXV of congresses of the CPSU according to the plan of development of the national economy of the USSR for 1971 — 1975 and 1976 — 1980 provided further strengthening of material and technical resources of health care and medical science.

Resolutions of the Supreme Council of the USSR «About a condition of medical care to the population and measures for improvement of health care in the USSR» (1968) and the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR «About measures for further improvement of health care and development of medical science in the country» (1968) for bodies of health care set the following tasks: to reduce the general and infectious incidence * traumatism, to raise a dignity. culture of the population to implement in practice of health care of achievement of science.

Big event in development 3. about z. acceptance was the session of the Supreme Council of the USSR on December 19, 1969 of the law of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics «About the statement of Bases of the legislation of USSR and federal republics about health care». The bill to his approval by the Supreme Council of the USSR underwent comprehensive consideration in the commissions of the Supreme Council of the USSR, was widely discussed in the press, at the enterprises and in institutions, and got national approval in state farms and collective farms.

During 1970 — 1971 the legislation of federal republics was brought into accord with «Bases of the legislation of USSR and federal republics about health care».

Bases of the legislation of USSR and federal republics about health care — the next stage in improvement of the Soviet legislation which is consistently realizing the principles of socialist democratism.

Bases 3. lakes reflect the modern level of health care, generalize all legal experience which is available in this area and approve a number of new important provisions.

In Bases 3. about z. the Lenin principle of democratic centralism combining centralization of the main beginnings of the legislation of USSR with the broad rights of federal republics is strictly observed.

The text of Bases of the legislation of USSR and federal republics about health care is included below.

BASES of the LEGISLATION of USSR AND FEDERAL REPUBLICS ABOUT HEALTH CARE

Health protection of the people — one of the most important problems of the Soviet state.

The socialist social order provides the constant growth of material well-being and culture of the people, improvement of working conditions, life and rest. In the USSR the broad system of the social and economic and medical actions promoting increase in level of public health care and also the public free and qualified medical care is carried out, recreational and sanitary measures extend, all-round development is gained by mass physical culture and sport. Special attention is paid by socialist society to health protection of mother and child.

The important fundamentals of the Soviet health care are made by constantly developing medical science. Scientific research in the field of medicine is subordinated to care about health and long active human life.

The system of health protection of the people in the USSR which is one of the greatest gains of socialism allowed to provide considerable improvement of the state of health of the population, reduction of incidence, elimination of a number of widespread earlier infectious diseases, sharp reduction of the general and child mortality, significant increase in life expectancy of people.

The Soviet legislation on health care is designed to serve actively further improvement of public health care, strengthening of legality in this area of the public relations.

Section I GENERAL PROVISIONS

Article 1. Tasks of the Soviet legislation on health care

the Legislation of USSR and federal republics on health care governs the public relations in the field of public health care for ensuring harmonious development of physical and spiritual powers, health, a high level of working capacity and long active life of citizens; preventions and decrease in incidence, further reduction of disability and decline in mortality; elimination of the factors and conditions which are harmfully influencing health of citizens.

Article 2. The legislation of USSR and federal republics on health care

the Legislation of USSR and federal republics on health care consists of the real Bases and other acts of the legislation of USSR and federal republics of health care corresponding to them.

Article 3. Public health care — an obligation of all public authorities, public

organizations Public health care is an obligation of all public authorities, enterprises, institutions and organizations. Powers of the specified bodies, the enterprises, institutions and organizations for public health care are defined by the legislation of USSR and federal republics.

Labor unions, the cooperative organizations, societies of the Red Cross and Red Crescent and other public organizations according to their charters (provisions) take part in ensuring public health care as it should be, stipulated by the legislation USSR and federal republics.

Citizens of the USSR shall make thrifty use of the health and health of other members of society.

Article 4. Providing citizens with medical care

is provided to Citizens of the USSR the public free and qualified medical help which is given by State Healthcare Institutions.

Article 5. Bases of the organization of health care in the USSR

Public health care in the USSR is provided with system of social and economic and medical and sanitary measures and carried out in the way:

1) holding broad recreational and preventive actions, special care of health protection of younger generation;

2) creations on production and in life of appropriate sanitary and hygienic conditions, elimination of the reasons of operational injuries, occupational diseases, and also other factors which are negatively influencing health;

3) holding actions for improvement of external environment, to ensuring sanitary protection of reservoirs, soil and free air;

4) planned development of network of healthcare institutions and enterprises of the medical industry;

5) free satisfaction of need of the population for all types of medical care; upgrading and cultures of medical care; gradual expansion of dispensary observation; development of specialized medical care;

6) free providing medical and diagnostic means at hospitalization with gradual expansion free or on favorable terms providing remedies and at other types of medical care;

7) expansions of network of sanatoria, dispensaries, rest houses, boarding houses, tourist centers and other institutions for treatment and rest of workers;

8) physical and hygienic training of citizens; development of mass physical culture and sport;

9) development of science, planned implementation of scientific research, preparation of scientific shots and highly qualified specialists in the field of health care;

10) uses in activity of healthcare institutions of achievements of science, the equipment and medical practice, equipment of these institutions by the latest equipment;

11) development of scientific and hygienic bases of food of the population;

12) broad participation of public organizations and groups of workers in public health care.

Article 6. Competence of USSR in health care

are subject to Maintaining USSR represented by its supreme bodies of the government and state bodies in the field of health care:

1) establishment of all-union development plans for health care and holding recreational actions;

2) establishment all-union planov development of scientific research, development of new drugs and the equipment of medical prescription, coordination of these researches and works, implementations of achievements of science, new diagnostic methods, treatment and prevention in medical practice;

3) establishment of all-union development plans for medical and pharmaceutical education, distribution of the specialists graduating from the highest medical and pharmaceutical educational institutions, preparation of scientific shots and improvement of knowledge of health and pharmaceutical workers; establishment of medical and pharmaceutical ranks, terms of training of health and pharmaceutical workers;

4) establishment of all-union plans of production and distribution of products of the medical industry between federal republics, the ministries and departments of the USSR, export and import of medicines, pieces of medical equipment and other products of medical prescription;

5) providing uniform technical policy in the field of the medical industry, establishment of uniform medico-production requirements to design of healthcare institutions; the statement of the state and industry standards, technical specifications on products of medical prescription and the prices of these products; the organization of control of quality of the products of medical prescription manufactured in the USSR and imported from abroad; scoping of production of narcotic substances and organization of control of their turn and consumption;

6) management of bodies and healthcare institutions of USSR; management of the medical industry of the enterprises, organizations and research establishments of health care, the highest medical and pharmaceutical educational institutions, institutes of improvement of doctors of allied subordination;

7) approval of all-union sanitary and hygienic and sanitary and anti-epidemic rules and norms; establishment of a procedure of the state sanitary inspection; implementation of actions for sanitary patrolling of the USSR from a drift of quarantine diseases, and also all-union actions for ensuring sanitary and epidemic wellbeing and radiation safety;

8) approval of standards of service of the population medical care, equipment of healthcare institutions equipment, stock and transport, norms of an expenditure of medicines; the statement of norms of food of the persons which are in treatment-and-prophylactic and other healthcare institutions;

9) approval of the uniform nomenclature of healthcare institutions and standard regulations on them; establishment of an order of definition of regular standards of medical, pharmaceutical, technical, pedagogical and other personnel of healthcare institutions;

10) establishment of the original positions defining an order of the organization and production of examination of working capacity, medicolegal and forensic-psychiatric examinations;

11) establishment of system of the uniform statistical account and reporting in bodies and healthcare institutions;

12) permission of other questions of health care carried according to the Constitution of the USSR and the real Bases to maintaining USSR.

Article 7. Competence of federal republics in health care

establishment of republican development plans for health care and holding recreational actions, the management of bodies and healthcare institutions of the federal republic, adoption of acts of the legislation in the field of health care, and also permission carried according to the Constitution of the USSR, the Constitution of the federal republic and the real Bases to maintaining the federal republic of other questions of the leadership in business of health care are subject to Maintaining the federal republic represented by its supreme bodies of the government and state bodies in the field of health care.

Article 8. The management of health care in the USSR

the Leadership in business of health care according to the Constitution of the USSR, constitutions of federal and autonomous republics is carried out by the supreme bodies of the government and state bodies of USSR, federal and autonomous republics, and also local councils of deputies of workers and their executive committees.

The Ministry of Health of the USSR directs health care, as a rule, through the Ministries of Health of federal republics and manages the institutions which are directly subordinated to it, the enterprises and the organizations.

The Ministries of Health of federal republics direct health care through the Ministries of Health of autonomous republics and bodies of health care of executive committees of the relevant local councils of deputies of workers and manage the institutions which are directly subordinated to them, the enterprises and the organizations.

The Ministry of Health of the USSR, the Ministry of Health of federal and autonomous republics, their bodies bear responsibility for a state and further development of health care, medical science and for quality of the medical care provided to the population.

Local councils of deputies of workers and their executive committees direct the bodies and healthcare institutions subordinated to them, take measures to development of network of healthcare institutions, their correct placement and strengthening of material and technical resources, the organization of medical care to the population, coordinate and control activity of all enterprises, institutions and organizations for development and carrying out measures in the field of health protection, ensuring sanitary wellbeing of the population, the organization of rest of workers, development of physical culture, protection and improvement of external environment, and also exercise control of compliance with the law about public health care.

Article 9. Jurisdiction of healthcare institutions

of Healthcare institution are under authority of the Ministry of Health of the USSR, the Ministries of Health of federal and autonomous republics and bodies of health care of executive committees of the relevant local councils of deputies of workers.

Other ministries, departments and the organizations can have in the maintaining healthcare institutions only with the permission of Council of ministers of the USSR and are obliged to manage them according to the legislation of USSR and federal republics on health care.

The Ministry of Health of the USSR coordinates activity of the healthcare institutions for questions of the treatment-and-prophylactic help, sanitary and epidemiologic service of the population, patrolling of the USSR which are not entering its system from a drift and spread of quarantine and other infectious diseases, and also to exercise control of this activity.

Article 10. Development of network of healthcare institutions, child care facilities and sports constructions

Development of network of healthcare institutions and their placement shall be carried out proceeding from the established standards of medical care to the population and taking into account economic, geographical and other features of regions of the country.

At design and construction of settlements, inhabited arrays, the enterprises and other objects construction of necessary healthcare institutions, child care preschool and out-of-school facilities, schools, sports buildings and constructions shall be provided.

Article 11. An order of the organization of activity of healthcare institutions

Original positions about an order of the organization of activity of lechebnoprofilaktichesky, sanitary and preventive and pharmaceutical institutions are established by the Ministry of Health of the USSR.

Section II. OCCUPATION MEDICAL AND PHARMACEUTICAL ACTIVITY

Article 12. Occupation medical and pharmaceutical activity

To medical and pharmaceutical activity allows the persons who received special preparation and ranks in the relevant highest and average special educational institutions of the USSR.

The foreign citizens and persons without citizenship having the permanent residence in the USSR, who received special preparation and ranks in the relevant highest and average special educational institutions of the USSR can be engaged in medical and pharmaceutical activity in the territory of the USSR according to the profession and a rank.

The persons who received medical or pharmaceutical preparation and ranks in the relevant educational institutions of the foreign states are allowed in the USSR to medical or pharmaceutical activity in the order established by the legislation of USSR.

Occupation is forbidden by medical and pharmaceutical activity to the persons which are not allowed to this activity in accordance with the established procedure.

Responsibility for illegal doctoring is established by the legislation of federal republics.

Article 13. The oath

of the doctor Grazhdane of the USSR, the ended highest medical educational institutions of the USSR and which were entitled the doctor take the oath of the doctor of the Soviet Union.

The text of the oath and an order of its bringing are defined by Presidium of the Supreme Council of the USSR.

Article 14. Professional duties, the rights and privileges of health and pharmaceutical workers

the Fundamental professional obligations and the rights of health and pharmaceutical workers, and also provided to the specified workers of a privilege are established by the legislation of USSR and the legislation of federal republics.

Professional duties and the rights of health, pharmaceutical and other workers of healthcare institutions for separate specialties are defined by the Ministry of Health of the USSR.

The professional rights, honor and dignity of doctors and other health workers are protected by the law.

Article 15. Improvement of professional knowledge of health and pharmaceutical workers

is assigned To bodies of health care development and holding actions for specialization and improvement of professional knowledge of the health and pharmaceutical workers who are carried out by periodic passing of preparation at institutes of improvement and other relevant healthcare institutions.

Heads of bodies and healthcare institutions are obliged to create necessary conditions to health and pharmaceutical workers for their systematic work on professional development.

The order of certification of health and pharmaceutical workers is established by the Ministry of Health of the USSR together with the Central committee of labor union of health workers.

Article 16.

Doctors and other health workers have no right to disclose a duty to keep a medical secret become to them known owing to execution of professional duties of the data on a disease, intimate and family aspects of life of the patient.

Heads of healthcare institutions are obliged to report data on a disease of citizens to bodies of health care in cases when it is demanded by interests of public health care, and to investigating and judicial authorities — according to their requirement.

Article 17. Responsibility of health and pharmaceutical workers for disturbance of professional duties

the Health and pharmaceutical workers who broke professional duties bear the disciplinary responsibility established by the legislation if these disturbances do not attract under the law of criminal liability.


Section III ENSURING SANITARY and EPIDEMIC WELLBEING of the POPULATION Article 18. Sanitary and epidemic wellbeing of the population

Sanitary and epidemiologic wellbeing of the population of the USSR is provided with holding complex sanitary and hygienic and sanitary and anti-epidemic actions and system of the state sanitary inspection.

Holding the sanitary and hygienic and sanitary and anti-epidemic actions directed to elimination and the prevention of pollution of external environment, improvement of working conditions, life and rest of the population and the prevention of diseases is an obligation of all public authorities, enterprises, institutions and organizations, collective farms, labor unions and other public organizations.

Disturbance of sanitary and hygienic and sanitary and anti-epidemic rules and norms attracts disciplinary, administrative or criminal liability according to the legislation of USSR and federal republics.

Article 19. Organa, exercising the state sanitary inspection

the State sanitary inspection behind holding sanitary and anti-epidemic actions, observance of sanitary and hygienic and sanitary and anti-epidemic rules and norms by public authorities, and also all enterprises, institutions and the organizations, by officials and citizens it is assigned to bodies and institutions of sanitary and epidemiologic service Ministries of Health of the USSR and the Ministries of Health of federal republics.

Powers of the bodies and institutions of sanitary and epidemiologic service exercising the state sanitary inspection are defined by the legislation of USSR.

Article 20. The health requirements imposed to a design and building of settlements

the Design and building of settlements shall provide creation of optimum conditions for life and health of the population.

Inhabited arrays, the industrial enterprises and other objects shall be placed so that to exclude adverse influence of harmful factors on health and sanitary living conditions of life of the population.

At design and city building and settlements of city type shall be provided: water supply, sewerage, device of street coverings, gardening, lighting, ensuring sanitary cleaning and other types of improvement.

During the providing the land plots under construction, the statement of norms of design, site plannings and buildings of settlements, commissioning of houses, buildings of cultural and community appointment, industrial and other enterprises and constructions the obligatory conclusion of bodies of sanitary and epidemiologic service is required.

The order of approval of bodies of sanitary and epidemiologic service of construction projects and reconstruction of the enterprises, buildings and constructions is defined by the legislation of USSR.

Article 21. Providing measures for cleaning and neutralization of industrial and household emissions, waste and garbage

Heads of the enterprises and institutions, design, construction and other organizations, boards of collective farms are obliged to provide and carry out measures for the prevention of pollution of free air, reservoirs, underground waters and the soil at design, construction, reconstruction and operation of the enterprises and household objects and bear the responsibility established by the legislation of USSR and federal republics for non-performance of these duties.

Input of the new and reconstructed enterprises, workshops, sites, installations and other objects which are not providing effective cleaning, neutralization, catching of harmful emissions, waste and garbage is forbidden.

Bodies of sanitary and epidemiologic service have the right to prohibit or to temporarily stop operation of the operating objects able to do harm to human health emissions, waste or garbage.

Article 22. Health requirements to settling of premises

Health requirements to settling of premises are established by Councils of ministers of federal republics.

Settling of the rooms which are not meeting health requirements is not allowed.

In the cases and an order established by the legislation of USSR and federal republics, the additional living space is provided to the persons suffering from severe forms of some chronic diseases.

Article 23. Observance of health regulations of maintenance of production rooms, residential and other buildings and territories

Heads of the enterprises, institutions and organizations are obliged to provide the maintenance of production rooms and jobs according to sanitary and hygienic norms and rules.

The enterprises, institutions and the organizations shall provide necessary conditions for satisfaction of sanitary domestic needs of workers.

Ensuring compliance with health regulations of maintenance of residential and public buildings and territories in which they are located is carried out by the relevant enterprises, institutions, the organizations, citizens, or in property of which these buildings are in maintaining, use.

Holding the general actions for ensuring compliance with health regulations of maintenance of residential and public buildings and appropriate sanitary condition of settlements it is assigned to executive committees of local councils of deputies of workers. Supervision of observance of health regulations of maintenance of streets, the yards and other territories of settlements is carried out by militia and bodies of sanitary inspection.

Article 24. The prevention and elimination of noise

Executive committees of local councils of deputies of workers, other public authorities, the enterprises, institutions and the organizations are obliged to hold events for the prevention, decrease in intensity and elimination of noise in production, residential and public buildings, in the yards, on streets and squares of the cities and other settlements.

Observance of rules according to the prevention and elimination of noise in living conditions is a duty of all citizens.

Article 25. Health requirements to economic drinking water supply

Quality of the water used for economic and drinking consumption shall conform to requirements of the state standard approved in accordance with the established procedure on representation of the Ministry of Health of the USSR.

For water supply systems of hozyaystvennopityevy appointment and their sources zones of sanitary protection with the special mode providing appropriate quality of water are established.

The order of definition of zones of sanitary protection of water supply systems and sources of their food is established by the legislation of USSR, and the sanitary mode of these zones — the legislation of USSR and federal republics.

Article 26. Obligation of approval of standards and technical specifications of bodies of health care

Drafts of standards and technical specifications on new types of raw materials, food stuffs, industrial products, new construction materials, a container and packing materials, polymeric both synthetics and products from them are approved in coordination with the Ministry of Health of the USSR, and in the cases determined by the Ministry of Health of the USSR — in coordination with the Ministries of Health of federal republics. Also introduction of the new technological processes, types of the equipment, devices and working tools able is in that order allowed to exert an adverse effect on health.

Article 27. Health requirements by production, processing, storage, transportation and implementation of food stuffs

Production, storage and transportation of food stuffs, processing equipment for production and the subsequent culinary processing of products, production of a container, packing materials and ware for food stuffs, and also implementation of food stuffs are resolved at respect for sanitary and hygienic norms and rules.

Use of new chemicals, means and methods for production and processing of food stuffs, and also use of growth-promoting factors of food agricultural plants and animal, chemical means of protection of plants, polymeric and plasts and other chemicals is allowed with the permission of the Ministry of Health of the USSR.

Article 28. Sanitary inspection behind production, use, storage and transportation of the radioactive, toxic and strong

materials Production, use, storage, transportation and burial of radioactive materials, sources of ionizing radiation, toxic and strong agents are carried out under the supervision of bodies and institutions of sanitary and epidemiologic service.

Article 29. Obligatory medical examinations

For public health care, prevention of infectious and occupational diseases employees of the enterprises of the food industry, public catering and trade, water constructions, treatment-and-prophylactic and child care facilities, livestock farms, some other enterprises, institutions and organizations, and also enterprises, institutions and organizations with harmful working conditions pass obligatory preliminary at revenues to work and periodic medical examinations.

The list of professions and productions in which for work medical examinations are obligatory and an order of carrying out these surveys are established by the Ministry of Health of the USSR in coordination with the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions.

Article 30. The prevention and elimination of infectious diseases

Executive committees of local councils of deputies of workers, heads of the enterprises, institutions, organizations and other officials are obliged to provide timely holding actions for the prevention of spread of infectious diseases, and also on their elimination in case of emergence.

In case of threat of emergence or spread of epidemic infectious diseases Councils of ministers of federal and autonomous republics, executive committees of local councils of deputies of workers can enter in accordance with the established procedure in the respective territories the special conditions and the modes of work, study, movement and transportations directed to the prevention of distribution and elimination of these diseases.

The patients with infectious diseases constituting danger to people around are subject to obligatory hospitalization, and the persons having contact with infectious patients — to a quarantine.

The persons who are bacillicarriers of infectious diseases are subject to improvement. The same persons, if they can be a source of spread of infectious diseases in connection with features of production in which they are engaged, or with the performed work, are temporarily transferred to other work, and at impossibility of transfer are suspended from work with payment of a grant on social insurance according to the legislation of USSR.

Lists of infectious diseases and diseases at which persons admit bacillicarriers, are defined by the Ministry of Health of the USSR.

For the warning of infectious diseases to citizens preventive inoculations are made.

The order and terms of carrying out inoculations are defined by the Ministry of Health of the USSR.

Article 31. Sanitary education of the population

of Organa and healthcare institution together with bodies and institutions of science, culture and national education with active participation of societies of the Red Cross and Red Crescent and other public organizations are intended to provide promotion of scientific medical and hygienic knowledge among the population.

Section IV. TREATMENT-AND-PROPHYLACTIC HELP to the POPULATION

Article 32. Providing citizens with the treatment-and-prophylactic help

to Citizens of the USSR specialized medical care is provided in policlinics, hospitals, clinics and other treatment and prevention facilities, and also emergency medical service and medical care at home.

Medical care is provided to disabled people of the Great Patriotic War also in special treatment and prevention facilities, and at treatment out of a hospital they use the side benefits established by the legislation of USSR.

For a disease with temporary disability release from work with payment in accordance with the established procedure of a grant on social insurance is provided to citizens.

For the prevention of diseases treatment and prevention facilities are obliged to use widely routine maintenances of the population and a dispensary method of observation.

The enterprises, institutions and the organizations together with healthcare institutions and the trade-union organizations are obliged to take necessary measures for prevention of operational injuries, occupational diseases and recovery of working capacity.

The foreign citizens and persons without citizenship having the permanent residence in the USSR use medical care on an equal basis with citizens of the USSR.

Medical care to the foreign citizens and persons without citizenship who are temporarily staying in the USSR appears in the order established by the Ministry of Health of the USSR.

Article 33. The order of rendering the treatment-and-prophylactic help to citizens

the Treatment-and-prophylactic help to citizens appears healthcare institutions for the residence and for the place of work.

To the persons affected by accidents or appeared owing to a sudden disease in the state demanding urgent medical care, this help appears urgently the nearest treatment and prevention facility irrespective of departmental subordination.

Health and pharmaceutical workers are obliged to provide the first emergency medical service to citizens on the way, on streets, in other public places and at home.

In case of need patients can go to the relevant treatment and prevention facilities of other federal republics in the order established by the Ministry of Health of the USSR, and in treatment and prevention facilities within the federal republic — in the order established by the Ministry of Health of the federal republic.

In necessary cases doctors are attracted by appropriate authorities of health care for participation in the commissions on medical examination of citizens.

Article 34. Use of diagnostic methods, treatment and pharmaceuticals

In medical practice doctors apply diagnostic methods, prevention and treatment, the pharmaceuticals resolved by the Ministry of Health of the USSR.

For the benefit of treatment of the patient and from his consent, and — with the consent of their parents, trustees or trustees the doctor can apply the new, evidence-based, but not allowed to general use yet diagnostic methods to the patients who did not reach sixteen-year age and mentally sick, prevention, treatments and pharmaceuticals. The order of use of the specified diagnostic methods, prevention, treatment and pharmaceuticals is established by the Ministry of Health of the USSR.

Article 35. The order of surgical intervention and use of difficult diagnostic methods

Surgeries are made and difficult diagnostic methods are applied with the consent of patients, and the patient who did not reach sixteen-year age and mentally sick — with the consent of their parents, trustees or trustees.

Urgent surgeries are made and difficult diagnostic methods are applied by doctors without the consent of patients or their parents, trustees or trustees only in those exceptional cases when the delay in establishment of the diagnosis or carrying out operation threatens life of the patient, and it is not possible to receive the consent of specified persons.

Article 36. Special measures of prevention and treatment

For public health care bodies of health care are obliged to carry out special measures of prevention and treatment of the diseases constituting danger to people around (tuberculosis, mental, venereal diseases, a leprosy, an alcoholism, drug addiction), and also quarantine diseases.

TB patients are free of charge provided with antitubercular drugs; their treatment in sanatoria and dispensaries is performed also free of charge.

Cases and an order of compulsory treatment and forced hospitalization of the persons having the specified diseases can be established by the legislation of USSR and federal republics.

Article 37. Assistance to health workers in rendering the treatment-and-prophylactic help to citizens

For the organization of healthcare institutions at the enterprises, in institutions and the organizations the administration is obliged to allocate necessary rooms and transport, and also to render to doctors and other health workers assistance in performance of their professional duties.

Executive committees of local councils of deputies of workers, heads of the enterprises, institutions and organizations and other officials are obliged to assist health workers in rendering urgent medical care to citizens, providing transport, means of communication and other necessary help.

In cases, life-threatening the patient, the doctor or other health worker can use free of charge any of the means of transport which are available in this situation for journey to the location of the patient or for his transportation in the nearest treatment and prevention facility.

Section V. PROTECTION of MOTHERHOOD AND CHILDHOOD

Article 38. Encouragement of motherhood. Guarantees of health protection of mother and

the child Materinstvo in the USSR it is protected and encouraged with the state.

Health protection of mother and child is provided with the organization of wide network of clinics for women, maternity homes, sanatoria and rest houses for pregnant women and mothers with children, a day nursery, gardens and other child care facilities; providing a maternity leave to the woman with payment of a grant for social insurance; establishment of breaks in work for feeding of the child; payment in accordance with the established procedure grants on the occasion of the birth of the child and grants during a nosotrophy the child; a prohibition of use of work of women in heavy and unhealthy productions, transfer of pregnant women into easier work with preservation of average earnings; improvement and improvement of working conditions and life; the state and public aid to a family and other actions in the order established by the legislation of USSR and federal republics.

For health protection of the woman it is granted the right most to resolve an issue of motherhood.

Article 39. Providing pregnant women and newborns with medical care

of Healthcare institution provide to each woman the qualified medical overseeing by the course of pregnancy, stationary medical care at childbirth and the treatment-and-prophylactic help to mother and newborn child.

Article 40. Providing children and teenagers with medical care

Medical care is provided to children and teenagers with treatment-and-prophylactic and recreational institutions: children's policlinics, clinics, hospitals, sanatoria and other healthcare institutions. In children's sanatoria of the permit it are provided to children free of charge.

Children and teenagers are under dispensary observation.

Article 41. Care of strengthening and health protection of children and teenagers

For education of the healthy younger generation with harmonious development of physical and spiritual powers public authorities, the enterprises, institutions and the organizations, collective farms, labor unions and other public organizations provide development of wide network of a children's day nursery and gardens, schools, boarding schools, country boarding schools, summer camps and other child care facilities.

Necessary conditions for preservation and promotion of health and hygienic education are provided to the children who are on education in child care facilities and the student at schools. Educational and labor load, and also the approximate mode of occupations of children are defined in coordination with the Ministry of Health of the USSR.

Control of health protection of children and holding recreational actions in child care facilities and schools is carried out by bodies and healthcare institutions together with bodies and institutions of national education with the assistance of public organizations.

Article 42. State help to citizens in implementation of care of children. The privileges provided to mothers in case of a disease of children

the Main expenses on keeping of children in a day nursery gardens and other child care facilities are made at the expense of the state budget, and also means of the enterprises, institutions, the organizations, collective farms, labor unions and other public organizations.

Children with defects of physical or mental development contain in children's homes, orphanages and other specialized child care facilities at the expense of the state budget.

At impossibility of hospitalization or lack of indications to hospitalization of the sick child mother or other family member who is looking after the child can be exempted from work with payment of grants on social insurance in accordance with the established procedure.

At hospitalization of children aged up to one year, and also seriously ill children of the advanced ages needing according to the conclusion of doctors maternal leaving, mother is given an opportunity to be with the child in medical institution with payment of a grant to it on social insurance in accordance with the established procedure.

Article 43. Control of labor and inservice training and working conditions of teenagers

Inservice training of teenagers is allowed by those professions which correspond to their age, physical and intellectual development and the state of health. Labor and inservice training is carried out under systematic medical control.

Control of observance by the established legislation of USSR and federal republics of working conditions of teenagers, and also holding the special events directed to the prevention of diseases of teenagers is carried out by bodies and healthcare institutions together with bodies of vocational training, bodies of national education, trade-union, Komsomol and other public organizations.

Section VI. SANATORIUM TREATMENT. ORGANIZATION of REST, TOURISM AND PHYSICAL CULTURE

Article 44. Sanatorium treatment of citizens

of the Indication and a contraindication for stationary and out-patient treatment in all resorts and in sanatoria of the USSR are established by the Ministry of Health of the USSR.

The order of medical selection and the direction of patients on sanatorium treatment is established by the Ministry of Health of the USSR in coordination with the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions. In accordance with the established procedure patients go to sanatorium institutions free of charge, on favorable terms or for a full payment.

Article 45. Resorts and districts of sanitary protection

by Resorts can be recognized the areas having the natural remedies, mineral sources, deposits of therapeutic muds, climatic and other conditions favorable for treatment and prevention.

Recognition of the area by the resort, establishment of borders of districts of sanitary protection of resorts and definition of their mode are made by Council of ministers of the USSR or Council of ministers of the federal republic on the joint representation of the Ministry of Health of the USSR and the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions or Ministry of Health of the federal republic and republican council of labor unions coordinated with executive committee of the relevant local council of deputies of workers in the territory of which this resort is located.

Article 46. The organization and opening of the sanatorium

Organization institutions and opening of sanatorium institutions are allowed with the permission of the Ministry of Health of the USSR and the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions in coordination with Council of ministers of the federal republic.

Specialization (a medical profile) of sanatorium institutions is defined by the Ministry of Health of the USSR and the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions.

Article 47. Coordination of activity of the sanatorium

Coordination of Activity of Sanatorium Institutions institutions, irrespective of their departmental subordination, in use of remedies and resort factors and the organization of the sanatorium mode is carried out by appropriate authorities on management of resorts.

The Ministry of Health of the USSR, the Ministry of Health of federal and autonomous republics exercise control of the organization of treatment-and-prophylactic work in sanatorium institutions, and also give them scientific and methodical and consulting help.

Article 48. Use of rest houses, boarding houses, tourist centers and other institutions of rest

Citizens use in accordance with the established procedure rest houses, boarding houses, tourist centers and other institutions of rest free of charge, on favorable terms or for a full payment.

Article 49. The organization of physical culture, sport and tourism

Public authorities, labor unions, the Komsomol and cooperative organizations, sports societies, the enterprises, institutions and the organizations shall promote sports and recreational, sports and tourist and excursion work among the population, to creation and strengthening of collectives of physical culture, tourist clubs and organizations and implementation of production gymnastics.;

In plans of work of child care preschool and out-of-school facilities, physical training is provided in programs of comprehensive schools, technical training colleges, average special and higher educational institutions.

To citizens for occupations physical culture and sport provides in accordance with the established procedure sports constructions, sports equipment and tourist equipment.

Medical control of the state of health of the citizens playing physical culture and sport is carried out by healthcare institutions.

Section VII MEDICAL EXAMINATION

Article 50. Production of medical examination of working capacity

Examination of temporary disability of citizens is carried out in healthcare institutions by the doctor or the commission of doctors who grant sick leave and to a mutilation, on pregnancy and childbirth, on a nosotrophy the family member and on a quarantine, for prosthetics, sanatorium treatment, define need and terms of temporary transfer of the worker due to illness for other work in accordance with the established procedure, and also make decisions on the direction on medical labor commission of experts.

Examination of long or constant disability is made by medical labor commissions of experts which establish extent of disability, group and the reason of disability; define for disabled people of a condition and the types of work, work and profession available to them for health reasons; check correctness of use of disabled people at work according to these conclusions; promote recovery of working ability of disabled people.

The conclusions of medical labor commissions of experts about conditions and the nature of work of disabled people are obligatory for administration of the enterprises, institutions and the organizations.

The order of the organization and production of examination of working capacity is established by the legislation of USSR and federal republics.

Article 51. Medicolegal and forensic-psychiatric examinations

Medicolegal and sudebnopsikhiatrichesky examinations are made according to the legislation of USSR and federal republics under the resolution of the person making inquiry, the investigator, the prosecutor and also by definition of court.

The order of the organization and production of medicolegal and forensic-psychiatric examinations is established by the Ministry of Health of the USSR in coordination with the Supreme Court of the USSR, Prosecutor's office of the USSR, the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR and other departments.

Section VIII MEDICINAL AND PROSTHETIC HELP

Article 52. The order of rendering the medicinal help to citizens

the Medicinal help to citizens appears the public pharmaceutical institutions, and also treatment and prevention facilities.

The order of providing citizens free or on favorable terms the medicinal help at out-patient and polyclinic treatment is defined by the legislation of USSR.

Pharmaceutical institutions can provide only such pharmaceuticals which are allowed for use by the Ministry of Health of the USSR.

Article 53. Ensuring control of production of pharmaceuticals

Production of new pharmaceuticals for the medical purposes is allowed with the permission of the Ministry of Health of the USSR after establishment of their medical or preventive efficiency.

Quality of pharmaceuticals shall conform to requirements of the State pharmacopeia of the USSR or the technical specifications approved in accordance with the established procedure.

Control of quality of pharmaceuticals is exercised by the Ministry of Health of the USSR.

Article 54. Providing citizens with the prosthetic help

Citizens in necessary cases are provided with prostheses, orthopedic, corrective products, hearing aids, means of physiotherapy exercises and special vehicles.

Categories of the persons which are subject to free or preferential providing with the specified products and objects and also conditions and an order of providing are established by them the legislation of USSR and federal republics.

Section IX INTERNATIONAL CONTRACTS AND AGREEMENTS

Article 55. The international contracts and agreements

If are established by the international treaty or the international agreement in which the USSR participates other rules, than those which contain in the legislation of USSR and federal republics on health care then are applied rules of the international treaty or the international agreement.

  • * *

Bases of the legislation of USSR and federal republics about health care are of great importance not only for the further successful organization of public health care of the USSR, but also huge international value.

The constitution (Fundamental law) of the USSR adopted by the VII extraordinary session of the Supreme Council of the USSR on October 7, 1977 is much wider, than the Constitution of 1936, raises a question of the right to health protection.

The right to health protection is guaranteed to citizens of the USSR, a cut it is provided with the free qualified medical aid rendered by State Healthcare Institutions; expansion of network of institutions for treatment and strengthening of health of citizens; development and improvement of the accident prevention and production sanitation; holding broad preventive actions; measures for improvement of the environment; special care about health of younger generation, including prohibition of the child labor which is not connected with training and labor education; expansion of the scientific research directed to the prevention and decrease in incidence on providing long active life of citizens. For the benefit of the present and future generations among other actions measures for preservation are provided in purity of air and water and to improvement of the environment surrounding the person.

The constitution of the USSR also provided right to maintenance in an old age, in case of a disease, full or partial disability. This right is guaranteed by social insurance of workers, employees and collective farmers, old-age pensions, disability, temporary disability benefits, and also employment of the citizens who temporarily lost working capacity and care of lonely aged citizens and of disabled people. Special attention is paid to special safety arrangements and health of women.

The big program of further development of national health care is provided in the resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR «About measures for further improvement of national health care» (1977) — see. Health care .

The legislation on health care in the socialist countries is under construction on the same principles, as in the USSR. The right to health protection is affirmed in constitutions of all socialist countries. In the organization of medical aid of these countries is much in common.

In the «Law on public health care» issued in 1966 in ChSSR the theoretical principles and organizational fundamentals of public health care of the republic — the state character, free of charge and general availability of the qualified medical aid, a preventive orientation, participation of the public in construction of health care are stated.

In June, 1972 became effective the Law on health care of VNR which defines obligations of the state in the field of national health, a task of bodies and the enterprises of health care in rendering to lay down. - professional, the help, medical education, providing with medicines, and also the rights and duties of medics.

In October, 1973 NRB adopted the Law on national health care regulating activity of the state in the field of health care, edges was defined by various acts earlier. In the law on national health care definite purposes and problems of health care — creating favorable conditions for harmonious physical and spiritual development, extension of active life of citizens.

In SFRYu «General Law on the Organization of Health Service» it was accepted in 1960. In it the principles of the organization and management of health care, regulations on healthcare institutions, duties of medics, the rights of citizens for receiving medical aid are stated.

In the Party of Russian Taxpayers, GDR, SRR activity of the state in the field of protection of national health, the right of citizens for medical aid are defined by the relevant acts and governmental decrees.

The legislation on health care reflects aspiration to planned development of health care in developing countries which are especially going on the way of noncapitalistic development. Development plans for health care are a component of national development plans for the country. The most sensitive issues of health care are fight against malaria, against smallpox and other infectious and parasitic diseases. The network of medical institutions is created; shots of medics from local population prepare. However the accepted plans in the field of health care owing to low level of economy in the majority of the developing countries of Africa, Asia are not always supported economically.

The legislation on health care in the developed capitalist countries. In Great Britain where in 1948 under the law «About National Health Service» healthcare institutions, 3 were nationalized. about z. in comparison with other capitalist countries has progressive character. However nationalization of medical institutions could not eliminate a private practice completely.

In France the health care is regulated by the existing «Code of public health care» approved by parliament in 1958. In it the main acts on health care are integrated. Along with state, municipal to lay down. private are available institutions. Almost all ambulatory care is in hands of private doctors. Social insurance funds are formed partially from the salary of working.

The health care in Germany is in the same way constructed. «Meetings of the federal right» included laws, government and departmental acts on health care, pharmaceutical business, control of production and sale of drugs, fight against infectious diseases and questions of social insurance.

In the USA there is no uniform national health service. To the population the corporate, public, charitable, private and other organizations and institutions are engaged in medical aid federal, territorial (within the state, the city, the district). Federal 3. about z. contains in the section of the code of laws of the USA «Public health and social security». It is devoted generally a dignity. activity and the organization of medical aid by federal service, a cut veterans of war, public servants and other groups of the population use.

The governmental decrees on single questions of health care and social security which are only partially resolving and regulating legal issues in the field of health care work in other capitalist countries.

See also Health care , Resorts , Ministry of Health , Protection of motherhood and childhood , Environmental control , Planning of health care , the Design of the inhabited places , Oath of the doctor of the Soviet Union , Sanitary and epidemiologic service .


From additional materials

For fit with the Constitution of the USSR (1977) and further improvement of the legislation on health care the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the USSR the Decree of June 18, 1979 made changes and additions to the Bases of the legislation of USSR and federal republics about health care accepted on December 19, 1969 by the session of the Supreme Council of the USSR.

Articles 3 and 4 are stated in the following edition:

«Article 3. The right of citizens for health protection

According to the Constitution of the USSR citizens of the USSR have the right to health protection.

This right is provided with the free qualified medical care provided by State Healthcare Institutions; expansion of network of institutions for treatment and strengthening of health of citizens; development and improvement of the accident prevention and production sanitation; holding broad preventive actions; measures for improvement of the environment; special care about health of younger generation, including prohibition of the child labor which is not connected with training and labor education; expansion of the scientific research directed to the prevention and decrease in incidence on providing long active life of citizens.

Article 4. Public health care — an obligation of all public authorities, public

organizations Public health care is an obligation of all public authorities, enterprises, institutions and organizations. Powers of the specified bodies, the enterprises, institutions and the organizations gyu to public health care are defined by the legislation of USSR and federal republics.

Labor unions, the cooperative organizations, societies of the Red Cross and Red Crescent and other public organizations according to their charters (provisions) take part in ensuring public health care as it should be, stipulated by the legislation USSR and federal republics.

Citizens of the USSR shall make thrifty use of the health and health of other members of society».

Changes are made to paragraphs of the 3rd and 7th article 5, to-rye are stated in the following edition:

«3) holding actions for improvement of the environment, to ensuring sanitary protection of reservoirs, soil and free air»;

«7) expansions of network of sanatorium institutions, dispensaries, rest houses, boarding houses, tourist centers and other institutions for treatment and strengthening of health of citizens».

Article 12 has addition of the following contents:

«The doctor who was not working by the profession more than three years shall be directed to a training in institute of improvement or in other relevant healthcare institutions with the subsequent admission to profession of a physician in the order determined by Council of ministers of the USSR».

The first part of article 16 is reworded as follows:

«Doctors and other medical, and also pharmaceutical workers have no right to disclose become to them known owing to execution, professional duties of the data on diseases, intimate and family life of citizens».

Part second of article 1 8 is changed, edges it is stated in the following edition:

«Holding the sanitary and hygienic and sanitary and anti-epidemic actions directed to improvement of the environment, improvement of working conditions, life and rest of the population, the prevention and decrease in incidence is an obligation of all public authorities, the enterprise, institutions and the organizations, collective farms, labor unions and other public organizations».

The first part of article 38 is reworded as follows:

«Motherhood in the USSR is protected and encouraged with the state; the conditions allowing to combine work with motherhood are created to women; legal protection, material and moral support of motherhood and the childhood are provided».

The section IX is reworded as follows.

Section IX INTERNATIONAL

CONTRACTS Article 55. The international contracts

If are established by the international treaty of the USSR other rules, than those which contain in the legislation of USSR on health care then are applied rules of the international treaty. The similar order works also in case of discrepancy between the legislation of the federal republic and the international treaty signed by it».

Changes and additions in a row of other articles, napr are made, words of «deputies of workers» are replaced with words of «People's Deputies», the words «external environment» the words «environment». In articles 6 and 9 between words «the ministries, departments» are brought the words «state committees», and in article 51 of the word «and other departments» are replaced with «The Ministry of Justice of the USSR», etc.



Bibliography: The guide to social hygiene and the organization of health care, under the editorship of N. A. Vinogradov, t. 1 — 2, M., 1974; Collection of laws of the USSR and decrees of Presidium of the Supreme Council of the USSR, 1938 — 1975, t. 3, page 177, M., 1975; Serenko A. F. and Sobolevsky G. H. Health care of socialist society, M., 1975, bibliogr.

A. F. Serenko, D. G. Oppengeym.

Яндекс.Метрика