LEBANON, the Lebanese Republic — the state in the Western Asia on east coast of the Mediterranean Sea. The area is 10,4 thousand km 2 . The population apprx. 3 million people (1976). Average population density 285 people (1976) on 1 km 2 .
Seaside districts are most inhabited, the St. 50% of the population live in the cities. The capital — Beirut (1290 thousand zhit. with suburbs, 1972). Ofits. language Arab. Administrative division — 5 governorates (governorships). A coastal strip — the plain passing to V. into the foothills of the ridge Livin occupying the most part of the country. The climate is subtropical, with dry summer and in the wet winter.
L. — parliamentary republic. The head of state — the president elected by the Chamber of Deputies. The legislature belongs to the Chamber of Deputies (unicameral parliament), and executive — to the president and Council of ministers.
For economy of L. poor development of the industry and agriculture and quite high — trade, tourism and services industry, and also banking is characteristic. The main direction in agriculture — production of fruit (apples, a citrus). The majority of food stuffs is imported from abroad. Textile, food, oil processing industries and production of building materials are most developed.
The national structure is rather homogeneous: St. 90% Arabs (Lebanese), apprx. 200 thousand the Palestinian refugees, Armenians, Greeks, Turks.
In 1973, according to official statistical data, were noted inf. diseases: tuberculosis of a respiratory organs, typhoid and paratyphus, viral hepatitis, acute poliomyelitis, meningococcal infections, separate cases of bacillar dysentery, diphtheria, measles, scarlet fever and leprosy. Helminthoses are widespread (an ascaridosis, trichinosis, a hymenolepiasis, etc.). In the village - x. districts of the coast there are centers of a dochmiasis, on Yu. the countries the urinogenital schistosomatosis is registered, the local laryngopharyngitis meets (the local name — halzun). The local craw is widespread in mountain districts and on the sea coast.
Medical aid appears hl. obr. private commercial and noncommercial-tsami and private medical practitioners. The state provides free medical aid only poor and a nek-eye to categories of persons (public servants, workers of the state enterprises). Mines-in of health care and hydroenergy resources consists of 3 departments: administrative and financial, technical and medical. The administrative and financial department, except administrative work, deals with issues medical - a dignity. legislations. The technical department, except the questions connected with hydroenergy resources is engaged a dignity. - epid, questions, and also protection of motherhood and the childhood, school hygiene, a dignity. education, dignity. statistics, control pharm, drugs and international quarantine actions. The medical department knows central and regional state-tsami and out-patient clinics, and also provides rendering medical aid by the public servant, poor and working the state industrial enterprises. In each governorship there is a public health department.
In 1970 in L. would be available 143 on 10 727 beds, or 38,4 beds on 10 000 zhit., W. p. 21 state-tsa general type (1602 beds) both 122 private commercial and noncommercial-tsy (9125 beds). Among them: 78 BCs of the general type on 4214 beds, 28 BCs ginekol, a profile on 448 beds, 4 tubercular on 1260 beds, 3 psychiatric on 1725 beds and 9 BCs of other profile on 1478 beds.
In 1973 in the country there were 2300 doctors (1 doctor for 1330 zhit.), apprx. 600 dentists, to 2000 nurses and midwifes, St. 800 assistants to the nurse and St. 600 druggists. Apprx. 60% of doctors practices in Beirut, 14% — in mountain Lebanon and the others in other governorships.
The acute military-political crisis which arose in April, 1975, civil war and the Israeli aggression sharply worsened medical - a dignity. condition of L.: in Beirut and other cities water supply, the sewerage, removal of garbage is broken.
V L. there are 2 highest medical educational institutions — medical school at American un-those and medical school at French un-those, 2 dental surgery schools and 8 schools for training of nurses.
Bibliography: The first review of a condition of health care in the world (1954 — 1956), page 383, Geneva, WHO, 1963; Draft of the program budget for 1978 and 1979 financial years, page 694, Geneva, WHO, 1977; The Draft of the program and budget estimates for 1975 financial year, page 695, Geneva, WHO, 1974; Countries of the world, Short political and economic reference book, page 192, M., 1978; World Health Statistics Annual, 1973 — 1976, v. 2 — 3, Geneva, 1976; World Health Statistics Annual, 1977, v. 1, p. 3, 12, Geneva, 1977; World Health Statistics Report, v. 28, No. 11, p. 430, 1975.
I. I. Sluchevsky.