LAUNDRY — the enterprise for washing and processing of dirty linen or clothes. The contaminated linen can promote distribution of a number of diseases therefore washing of linen has important a gigabyte. and anti-epidemic value. For deactivation of the clothes contaminated by radioactive materials the special mechanized laundries are created (see. Deactivation ).
Items are projected dry linen with a productivity from 500 to 10 000 kg in change. It is allowed to project departmental laundries (at the industrial enterprises, at-tsakh) less than on 500 kg of dry linen in change. The design of production rooms of P. shall provide the following sequence tekhnol, process of washing and processing of linen: reception and control of linen; sorting, storage and drawing up batches of dirty linen; washing and extraction of linen; drying and ironing; repair, selection and packaging; storage and delivery of fresh linen.
Linen is sorted by a way of processing, by the form by fabrics, by color, by the range, by the nature of pollution. Allocate 4 degrees of impurity of linen: The I degree — the low-contaminated linen; The II degree — srednezagryaznenny linen; The III degree — strongly contaminated (with spots, dirty sleeves and collars, etc.); The IV degree — especially contaminated (with mineralnomaslyany and other production pollution, kitchen towels, etc.). Pollution from linen delete by washing and rinsing. Strongly contaminated and infected linen is previously presoaked or subjected to bucking (see). Washing of linen or clothes is made in washing machines and continues depending on impurity of linen of 45 min. till 1,5 o'clock. Dry linen usually in drying ovens or drums at a temperature not over 65 ° within (on average) 1 hour. Iron clothes irons, steam and electric skating rinks and special ironing pressa.
The rooms intended for reception, storage and sorting of linen washing and drying and ironing workshops owe Ikhmet natural lighting. The relation of the area of windows to floor area should be accepted in production rooms not less than 1:8, in auxiliary rooms not less than 1: 12. Without natural lighting the device of rooms only for preparation of solutions and warehouse is allowed.
Heat supply, heating and P.'s ventilation are projected according to Construction Norms and Regulations on design of heating, ventilation, air conditioning, thermal networks of public service establishments of the population. As heating devices in P. use radiators, and for rooms of sorting and washing workshops — registers from smooth pipes.
In washing and drying and ironing workshops, and also in department of preparation of solutions equip at - the exact exhaust ventilation with mechanical motivation. In reception and sorting of linen all-exchange ventilation with mechanical motivation is provided. Ventilation is projected taking into account ensuring the movement of air in the direction from the workshop of delivery of linen to the workshop of reception, i.e. from pure rooms to dirty. Air temperature in workshops of receiving and delivery of linen shall be 18 °, relative humidity to 60%, in rooms of washing and drying and ironing workshops respectively 22 °, 75 — 80% and 65-70%.
Such adverse production factors as high temperature and the increased humidity in the workshop of washing of linen, contact with the dirty, sometimes infected linen at reception and sorting are characteristic of working conditions in P.; cooling of legs as a result of contact with a crude and cold floor, irritant action on skin of hands of water of different temperature and detergents; the physical tension of separate muscular groups in connection with long forced position of a body; noise and vibration. Therefore all above-mentioned gigabyte. requirements to P. shall correspond to the indicators regulated Construction Norms and Regulations of II — 80 — 75 «Public service establishments of the population. Norms of design».
The actions directed to improvement of working conditions in P. consist in creation of a favorable microclimate and establishment for workers of laundries of periodic medical control.
Field laundries are intended for washing of linen in field conditions. In need of them it is possible to make also washing of regimentals, and also impregnation by special means (see. Dressing ), disinsection processing of linen and repair of linen and regimentals.
For the first time mobile bath-and-laundry institutions in the Russian army appeared in 1904 when Society of the Red Cross equipped the bath-and-laundry disinfection train (BALDT) from 4 cars including a laundry with manual washing machines and a disinfection chamber. This train during the Russian-Japanese war serviced hospital and infirmaries in the Far East. Along with already being available BPDP in 1916 — 1917 began to create the field laundries equipped with the elementary equipment.
After Great October socialist revolution in connection with a difficult epidemic situation in the country field laundries were created for troops of Red Army.
In 1919 — 1920 orders RVSR and NKZ created bath-and-laundry groups (BPO) — stationary, flying type, stage and garrison which after the end of civil war were replaced with uniform BPO.
In 1940 the field laundry groups (FLG) with a productivity of 50 — 60 kg of linen an hour were organized. In general armies there were from 3 to 5 PPO. Each PPO had two independent departments which could be given to divisions.
In days of the Great Patriotic War bath-and-laundry service of troops was organized and carried out by medical service, but in an initial stage of war washing of linen was generally made by local population, in hospital laundries and staff. BPDP, number to-rykh by the end of war worked in the back of fronts at large junction railway stations reached 100 (before war only 9 BPDP was exploited).
In military units (regiments, detached battalions) during war used the installations (BPDU) with a productivity of 25 kg of linen produced by forces of parts bathing dezinfektsionnoprachechnye an hour. Installation held on one vehicle or sledge and one person serviced it.
In February, 1942 the State committee of defense adopted the resolution «About Measures for the Prevention of Epidemic Diseases in the Country and in Red Army», formation of front and army laundry groups was provided in Krom, in particular.
The big role in bath-and-laundry service was played insulating check points (see) on railway and waterways of the message. These points had all necessary for a dignity. processings of people, and also for disinfection and disinsection of regimentals. For 1943 — 1945 on such points it was processed apprx. 20 million people.
In field conditions different types of field laundries are used. One of them — mechanized field laundry (MPP-1), productivity cover 1400 kg of linen for 20 hours of work. On the basis of four MPP-1 created the field laundry groups (FLG), mechanized small-size laundry (MMP-2), productivity cover 700 kg of linen for 20 hours of work. Feature of this laundry consists that in it two three-operational washing machines are placed, in to-rykh washing, rinsing and drying of linen is at the same time made. Are used in field conditions and the mechanized hospital field laundry (MHFL), productivity a cut for 20 hours of work makes 320 kg of linen, and also the bathing prachechno-the disinfection train (BPDT) intended for a dignity. processings of staff of troops and washing of the linen which is arriving from military units, institutions and the passing echelons, productivity of the train for 20 hours of work of 2000 kg of dry linen.
See also Bath-and-laundry business .
Yu. D. Gubernsky, N. S. Orlova; V. V. Korochentsev (soldier.).