LARREY Dominique (Larrey Dominique Jean, 1766 — 1842) — the French surgeon, one of founders of field surgery, the doctor of medicine (1803), the member of National academy of medicine (1820) and the Parisian academy of Sciences (1829).
Got medical education at the Toulouse medical school, upon termination of a cut in 1786 participated as the doctor-surgeon in an expedition of the fr. fleet to North America. Since 1789 professor of the higher medical school «Val de Grace» in Paris worked as the surgeon in Paris, and then. As hl. the surgeon of fr. army participated in all military campaigns of Napoléon I. In 1793 D. Larrey for the first time created mobile medical formation «flying ambulans» («ambulance volante»), intended for carrying out of wounded from the battlefield, first-aid treatment and their transportation in mobile hospital; these ambulansa gained distribution not only to fr. armies, but also were a sample for creation of similar institutions in armies of other states.
D. Larrey was a hot supporter of early amputations at fire changes, considering their only recovery aid lives of wounded at imperfect methods of an immobilization and need to transport wounded the cartage on very bad roads. The doctrine about advantage of early amputations dominated in views of surgeons up to the middle of 19 century when it was finally disproved by N. I. Pirogov who offered the «savings method of treatment». D. Larrey introduced in practice of field surgery an exarticulation for the first time) in coxofemoral and humeral joints, practiced washing of fresh wounds warm salt solution, and contaminated wounds hypochloric liquid of Labarrak; he was an active supporter of rare bandagings of the wounds (1 times in 4 — 9 days) aiming to provide perhaps longer rest to a wound and at the same time was a supporter of a section and drainage of wounds for the purpose of ensuring outflow of wound exudate. It quite often successfully applied a craniotrypesis at wounds in the head. It developed surgery of thoracic wounds with a wide thoracotomy and a resection of edges at intrapleural bleeding. At open pheumothorax D. Larrey practiced obturatsionny bandages.
D. Larrey combined the extensive practical experience and brilliant skill with scientific and literary activity and always aimed to transfer them to other surgeons, organizing training sessions of surgeons during preparation for campaigns. He is, in particular, the author of two fundamental scientific works generalizing experience of rendering the surgical help to wounded during war: «Memoirs about military surgery and military campaigns» in four volumes (1812 — 1817) and «Clinical surgery with its preferential use in battles and military hospitals during the period from 1792 to 1836» in five volumes (1829-1836).
Works: Relation historique et chirurgicale de l’expedition de l’armee d’orient en Egypte et en Syrie, P., 1803; Dissertation sur * les amputations des membres a la suite des coups de feu, etayee de plusieurs observations, P., 1808; Memoires de Chirurgie militaire et campagnes, t. 1—4, P., 1812 — 1817; Clinique chirurgicale, exercee parti-culierement dans les camps et les hopitaux militaires, depuis 1792 jusqu’en 1836, t. 1 — 5, P., 1829 — 1836.
Bibliography: Kassirsky I. A., Zh. D. Larrey and ambulance in the war, M. — L., 1939; Kolosov G. A. Jean Dominique Larreille (1766 — 1842), Is new. hir. arkh., t. 31, book 1, page 8, 1934; Sheynis V. Larrey, Entsikloped, dictionary soldier. medical, t. 3, Art. 364, M., 1948; E riga of J. D. Baron Larrey, medical officer, Milit. Surg., v. 59, p. 291, 1926; Soubiran A. Le baron Larrey, P., 1966.
A.S. Georgiyevsky, S. A. Semeka.