LAPIC Louie (Lapicque Louis Edouard; 1866 — 1952) — the French neurophysiologist, the member of the Parisian academy of Sciences (1930) and French medical academy (1925), the doctor of honoris causa of high fur boots of Oxford, Toronto, Liege and Bern.
Upon termination of natural f-that Parisian un-that consisted the member of the government commission on inspection of residents of Abyssinia and Oceania (1892 — 1894), English India (1902 — 1904). Since 1911 the prof. of the national museum of natural history in Paris, then the prof. of physiology Parisian un-that (1919 — 1936).
L. Lapik is the author of numerous scientific works, including 6 monographs devoted to studying of quantitative changes of excitability of various living tissues and bodies, especially muscular and nervous systems. He established dependence of the reaction received in response to irritation by electric current, at most and duration of action and expressed this dependence graphically (curve Lapika) and as a mathematical formula. The facts received by it showed inadequacy of the theory of excitement Nernsta and laid the foundation for the new ideas based on measurement of a chronaxia (see. Hronaksimetriya ). Investigating a chronaxia of various fabrics and in various conditions, including at poisoning of a curare, strychnine, etc., L. Lapik established the principle of an isochronia consisting that ability of one fabric to excite another is caused by identical time of excitement of these fabrics. At various sizes of a chronaxia the condition of a heterochronia is created and transfer of excitement from one fabric on another stops. The theory of an isochronia promoted establishment of patterns of spread of activation and its synoptic carrying out in c. N of page. Many provisions of L. Lapik unilaterally explaining various fiziol, processes (exhaustion, an anesthesia, etc.) only fluctuations of a chronaxia, were criticized as metaphysical. Nevertheless the doctrine about a chronaxia is conventional. L. Lapik highly appreciated value of the exercise H. E. Vvedensky about fiziol, labilities and parabiosis (see). L. Lapik created the school of physiologists known around the world. Ge. Bourguignon, G. Gasser, G. Dzhasper, etc. were his pupils.
It is awarded the order the Honourable legion.
Works: Definition experimental de l’excita-bilite, Page R. Soc. Biol. (Paris), t. 67, p. 280, 1909; L’excitabilite en fonction du temps, la chronaxie, sa signification et sa mesure, P., 1926; The Latest progress in knowledge of the nervous mechanism, the lane with fr., Fiziol. zhurn., t. 21, century 5-6, page 1059, 1935; La machine nerveuse, P., 1943.
Bibliography: Uflyand Yu. M. Theory and practice of a hronaksimetriya, L., 1938; A d r i a n E. D. Prof. L. Lapicque, Nature (Lond.), v. 171, p. 153, 1953; Fulton J. F. Lapicque’s investigations on the chronaxie of excitable tissues, ibid., v.113, p. 427, 1924.
E. L. Golubeva.