LAOS, the Lao People's Democratic Republic — the state in the central part of the Indochina peninsula. The area is 236,8 thousand km 2 . Population of 3460 thousand people (1977). The capital — Vientiane (apprx. 200 thousand zhit., 1977). Administrative division — 16 khuyeng (provinces) which are divided into muong (districts), and muong on tasseng (districts). Ofits. language — Laotian.
As a result of long-term fight of the Laotian people the monarchy was abolished on December 2, 1975 and the Lao People's Democratic Republic is proclaimed. The head of state — the president. He is the chairman of the temporary supreme legislative body — the Supreme national assembly. Executive body — the government headed by the prime minister. Local authorities — electoral narodnorevolyutsionny committees.
More than a half of the territory of L. occupy the mountains and mountain plateaus which are cut up by extensive fertile river valleys; the largest river — Mekong. St. 60% of the territory of the country are covered with the woods in which valuable breeds grow (a tic, a cinchonic tree, etc.).
The climate is subtropical, monsoonal with high humidity and high annual average temperature.
L. — the agrarian country which followed a way of socialist transformations. The basis of the economy — agriculture; the St. 80% of able-bodied population of the country are engaged in it. The main page - x. culture — rice. Corn, coffee, a cotton, vegetables, tobacco, opium poppy are cultivated. The livestock production is developed. There are deposits of tin, copper, zinc, lead, iron etc.
Industry of L. is in a stage of formation. There are 3 sectors: state, state-private and private. The most developed industry is gornoobrabatyvayushchy (extraction of tin). Handicraft work prevails.
In the country there live about 30 nationalities: Lao (St. 70%), to a khm, meo, yao, etc.
The natural movement of the population, on ofitsa. to the data published in editions of WHO during 1970 — 1975 it is characterized by the following indicators (on 1000 people): birth rate 44,6; mortality 22,8; natural increase 21,8. According to informal data, child mortality in the cities apprx. 100 on 1000 live-born, and in rural areas reaches 200.
One of the main problems of health care are inf. and parasitic diseases. Malaria (in 1971 21 243 fresh cases of malaria, in 1973 — 6920, in 4974 g — 13 253 are registered) is eurysynusic, however antimalarial events were held only in the valley of the river Vientiane where lives apprx. 200 thousand zhit. A large number is registered went. - kish. infections (an amebiasis, bacillar dysentery, typhus and paratyphus), from 500 to 700 fresh cases of tuberculosis a year (1971, 1973). Gonorrhea, fresh cases of syphilis, leprosy, trachoma, poliomyelitis are registered. The ascaridosis and a dochmiasis is widespread. In the valley of the Mekong River the schistosomatosis often meets. The district of Vientiane is endemic on rage. In 1971 1017 cases of rage among people were registered.
Heads health service in the country mines - in public health care, a cut consists of the Supreme council of public health care, National council of health care, inspection of health services, general management of public health care and office of the minister.
The general management of public health care is responsible for special questions of health care and consists of administrative management (management), management of BC and training of medical staff, national services of public health care; the last know health protection of mother and child, hygiene and preventive medicine, pharm, and laboratory services. The medical service of the province is headed by the medical inspector.
In 1974 in the country there were 39 BCs on 3232 beds (9,9 beds on 10 000 population), from them 2736 general profiles, 169 surgical, 128 maternity, 134 pediatric, 22 for treatment inf. patients, 12 psychiatric, 31 other profiles. Extra hospital medical aid in 1972 appeared in 15 polyclinic departments of BC, 4 centers of health care, 135 rural out-patient clinics, 59 centers of health protection of mother and the child, 1 point of health protection of school students, 1 center of medical rehabilitation, in laboratory of public health care. Name and content of work of healthcare institutions of L. not fully correspond to the concepts accepted in the USSR (see Lechebnoprofilaktichesky institutions abroad).
Government of L. takes measures for improvement of life of workers. The network of medical institutions extends, the system of free medical aid is entered. In 1976 in the country 46 doctors, 110 medical assistants, 15 stomatologists, 16 druggists, 20 midwifes, St. 330 assistants to the midwife, St. 40 nurses and apprx. 1000 assistants to the nurse worked.
In the country there is 1 school for training of doctors, 1 school for training of dentists and 1 school for training of druggists with the 5-year term of training, 1 school with the 3-year term of training for training of nurses, and also 9 schools with the 2-year term of training for training of assistants to the nurse, midwifes, laboratory assistants, X-ray technicians and assistants to the druggist.
Bibliography: The fifth review of a condition of health care in the world (1969 — 1972), page 356, Geneva, WHO, 1977; Countries of the world, Short political and economic reference book, page 189, M., 1978; World Health Statistics Annual, 1973 — 1976, at. 1, p. 12, v. 2, p. 51, v. 3, p. 217, Geneva, 1976; World Health Statistics Report, v. 28, p. 440, 1975, v. 30, p. 168, 1977.
A. A. Rozov.