LANDSHTEYNER Karl (Landsteiner Karl, 1868 — 1943) — the Austrian immunologist and the pathologist, professor (1911), the honorary doctor of science of high fur boots of Chicago (1927), Cambridge (1934), Brussels (1934), Harvard (1936), the Nobel Prize laureate (1930).
In 1891 ended medical f-t Vienna un-that, then till 1896 worked in the field of medical chemistry in laboratories of the Würzburg, Munich, Zurich. In 1896 — 1898 the assistant Ying-that hygiene in Vienna; in 1898 — 1908 the assistant Vienna pathoanatomical in-that, then till 1919 the prosector of Hospital of internal diseases of Wilhelm in Vienna. In 1911 medical f-that is elected professor patol, anatomy Vienna un-that. Since 1919 the prosector in one of clinics of the Hague. In 1922 moved to the USA where till 1939 was professor of pathology and bacteriology Rock Feller in-that in New York.
K. Landshteyner published over 340 scientific works which are devoted to development of problems of theoretical medicine: immunology, pathology, medical chemistry, microbiology, bacteriology, anaphylaxis. In 1900 K. Landshteyner opened blood groups at the person that was scientific justification of the theory of hemotransfusion. He together with J. Donath described cold hemolysins at a paroxysmal haemoglobinuria (1904), together with F. Levin found M, N and P (1927) antigens in erythrocytes of the person. Together with A. Winer he opened and studied a Rhesus factor of blood of the person (1940). K. Landshteyner for the first time received artificial semi-artificial antigens and established that antibodies can react not only with protein connections, but also with some protein-free substances for which designation it entered the term «hapten», and also proved that specificity of antigen is defined by determinant group of its molecule and that haptens contact antibodies. These researches formed the basis for statement of reaction of a delay. K. Landshteyner in 1909 together with Popper (E. Popper) proved a virus etiology of poliomyelitis, improved serological diagnosis of syphilis and entered into practice a technique of «dark field» at microscopic examination of a pale spirochete.
For opening blood groups (see). K. Landshteyner was conferred the Nobel Prize.
Works: tiber Agglutinationserscheinungen nor-malen menschlichen Blutes, Wien. klin. Wschr., S. 1132, 1901; Die Blutgruprien und ihre praktische Anwendung besonders fur die Bluttransfusion, Forsch. Fortschr, dtsch. Wiss., S. 311, 1931; Agglutinable factor in human blood recognized by immune sera for rhesus blood, Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.), v. 43, p. 223, 1940 (sovm. with Wiener A. S.); The specificity of serological reactions, Cambridge, 1946.
Bibliography: Le centenaire de Karl Land-steiner, prix Nobel, Presse med., t. 76, p. 1992, 1968; Karl Landsteiner, 1868 — 1943, J. Immunol., v. 48, p. 1, 1944, bibliogr.; S p e i s e r P. Karl Landsteiner, Entdecker der Blutgruppen, Wien, 1961.
V. I. Didenko.