LAMENESS (claudicatio) — the form of change of gait which is expressed asymmetry of movements of legs owing to dysfunction of a musculoskeletal system.
Lameness is a symptom of many diseases and damages, preferential lower extremities. Distinguish lameness at anatomic shortening of an extremity or its deforkhmation and the painful (sparing) lameness connected with patol. process in an extremity. Besides, lameness can be caused by the shuffling, ataxic gate (see) which is observed at decrease in sensitivity, paresis, paralyzes and also disturbance of blood circulation in the lower extremities, napr, at obliterating diseases of vessels. In the latter case it has periodic character that is connected with the pain arising during the walking in one or both legs (see. The alternating lameness).
Lameness owing to shortening of an extremity is noted at patients with inborn malformations of a musculoskeletal system — congenital dislocation of a hip (see Dislocations), varus deformation of a neck of a femur, an osteodysplasia (see), a chondrodysplasia (see), etc.; at patients with damage of bones of a skeleton owing to incorrectly accrete change (see Changes), a caries a tumor, inflammatory process, damage of enchondral zones during not ended growth of a bone (see) etc. Lameness steps during the shortening of an extremity more than on 2 — 3 cm. At lameness the rhythm of vertical rocking of a body changes during walking; at bilateral shortening of extremities, especially in combination with changes in hip joints, there is a special form of disturbance of gait with rocking in both parties — «duck gait».
The lameness connected with pain (sparing), on dishes - etsyatsya at patients with inflammatory or dystrophic diseases of bones, joints and soft tissues — a periostitis (see), osteomyelitis (see), a miositis (see), arthritis (see Arthritises), arthrosis (see Arthroses), etc.; with damages — sprain (see the Distortion), bruises of periartikulyarny fabrics, at prematurely stopped immobilization concerning a change, when a bone callosity (see) did not get stronger yet, etc. Lameness in these cases is caused by what because of pains of the patient not completely loads the affected extremity and aims to transfer a support to healthy. Gait becomes intense with restriction of movements in joints. So-called accentuation of a step — «pripadaniye» on a healthy leg is characteristic.
At small shortening of an extremity recommend wearing orthopedic footwear (see) or a special insole in usual footwear; during the shortening of an extremity more than on 3 — 5 cm operational methods can be applied (see. Bone plastics). At the lameness connected with pain treatment of the basic disease which led to lameness is necessary.
Bibliography: Hook and nt. S. Ortopediya
of children's and teenage age, page 15, M., 1956; M and r to with V. O. Orthopedic diagnosis, page 119, Minsk, 1978; The Multivolume guide to orthopedics and traumatology, under the editorship of N. P. Novachenko, t. 2, page 53, M., 1968. A. S. Hook.