From Big Medical Encyclopedia

LAENNEK Wren (Laennec Rene Theophile Hyacinthe, 1781 — 1826) — the French doctor, one of founders of modern clinical medicine and pathological anatomy, the member of Medical academy of France (1823).


Began to study medicine at the age of 14 years in Nantes, since 1801 studied and worked in Paris for Zh. Korvizar and M. Bish. In 1802 published the first work about peritonitises. In 1804 made two theses devoted to Hippocrates in which gave the analysis of its doctrine and suggested that the creations attributed to it belong to a feather of different researchers. Since 1822 professor of College de France and since 1823 — department a wedge, medicine in you would Rummage.

R. Laennek is one of founders of a kliniko-anatomic method in medicine. Without microscope, using a magnifying glass, it described morfol, a picture of a number of diseases of lungs, cirrhosis, peritonitis, an aortic aneurysm, etc. During an era of a wide spread occurance of speculative theories, napr, «physiological medicine» of F. B of Ruse, R. Laennek stood on positions of steady following to the checked fact, accuracy in observations and restraint in conclusions.

Historical merit of R. Laennek — in the invention to them a stethoscope (1816) and development of a method auscultations (see). Direct listening by an ear of a thorax of the patient was applied also to Laennek, including his teacher Zh. Korvizar. Use of auscultation with use of a stethoscope in combination with other methods of a research of the patient — the palpation, percussion, succussion (stirring), comparison of intravital symptoms of a disease and results of posthumous opening allowed to develop fundamentals of semiotics of diseases of a respiratory organs carefully. It described a sound picture during the listening of lungs, characteristic of certain diseases, in particular crepitant rattles in an initial stage of a lung fever, the whistling rattles at bronchitis, a metal sound at a pyopneumothorax.

R. Laennek offered pathoanatomical classification of pulmonary diseases, bronchial tubes and a pleura; allocated and described emphysema, gangrene, hypostasis and a heart attack of lungs, bronchitis, pheumothorax, etc.

Having offered the term «tuberculosis», R. Laennek combined them various wedge, options of damage of lungs, limf, nodes, pleurae at the heart of which is available uniform morfol, substrate — a tubercle. Thereby he established specificity of tubercular process long before opening of an infestant. He specified also that a pneumorrhagia not the reason, but a consequence of a disease. R. Laennek considered tuberculosis an infectious disease; it provided kliniko-anatomic proofs of scarring of cavities and recovery of patients, having noted, however, a rarity of such outcome. In quality to lay down. he died offered physical and spiritual rest, a maritime air, suralimentation.

In the history of cardiology R. Laennek possesses the description of cordial noise and a symptom of «cat's purring» at a mitral stenosis, a pericardial rub, the idea of a valve origin of the 1st cardiac sound, the instruction for a role of blood clots in self-healing of aneurisms. But in general it was not successful semiotics of heart troubles: during its era the physiology of blood circulation did not create for this purpose necessary premises yet.

Further Zh. Buyo managed to reveal dependence patol, noise from defeats of certain openings and valves of heart and that to show value of the auskultativny diagnostic method of heart troubles opened by Laennek.

Works: De 1’auscultation mediate, ou trait6 du diagnostic des maladies des poumons et du coeur, t. 1—2, P., 1826.

Bibliography: Gauthier E. Rene Laennek, 1781 — 1826, M., 1902; Konchalovsky M. G1. Laennek, Ren6 Theophile Hyacinthe Laennec, Rubbed. arkh., t. 5, century 1, page 1, 1927; M and x and y l about in F. A. Rene Theophil Hyacinth Laennek, Klien, medical, t. 45, No. 12, page 144, 1967; Pletnev D. D. Rene Theophil Hyacinth Laennek, in the same place, t. 5, Lo 5, page 275, 1927; S a r r a d about n P. Le docteur Laennec, P., 1946.

V. I. Borodulin.