LACTIC PRODUCTS — the foodstuff received as a result of processing of milk by fermentation by its various microorganisms.
M of the item as ferments are divided into products of the lactic and mixed fermentation. Curdled milks (ordinary, mechnikovsky, fermented baked milk, varenets, acidophilus milk, yogurt), acidophilic products, sour cream, cottage cheese belong to products of lactic fermentation; to products of the mixed fermentation (lactic and spirit) — kefir, koumiss, ayran, Curt, chat. Carry to L. S. also cheese. Almost all L. S. are dietary and occupy in our country up to 40% in the general assortment of whole-milk products.
Production of L. S. is generally concentrated on the milk plants (see. Milk plant ). For their production use usually pasteurized homogenized milk with acidity not higher than 20 °t and a coli-index not lower than 0,3. At production of L. S. the caption of colibacillus shall not decrease (see. Milk, dairy products ).
Condition of production of qualitative L. S. good ferment is decisive, three basic groups of microorganisms are a part a cut: lactic streptococci, lactic sticks, including acidophilic, and yeast.
For receiving L. S. special laboratories of the milk industry are engaged in selection of cultures and production of ferments. The specific ferment prepared from culture of one or several species of microorganisms is intended for each type of L. S. Ferments are produced also in a dry form and are on sale in drugstores. Thanks to such ferments of L. S. it is possible to prepare not only on milk plants, but also in medical, child care facilities and in house conditions. Ferment is brought in number of 5% of the lump of milk.
There are two main ways of production of L. S.: reservoir and thermostately. The reservoir way is that processes of souring of milk, maturing (kefir and koumiss) and coolings are conducted in high-capacity tanks and on pouring the finished cooled product comes to bottles (packages). At a thermostately way milk is spilled at first in bottles and process of souring happens in the same container in thermostats then the product is cooled up to the temperature not over 8 °.
During the souring in milk there is a row biochemical, transformations: lactose is fermented with education milk to - you, under action casein of milk coagulates a cut, and the clot is formed. Protein of milk is exposed to partial splitting (peptonization) and acquires finely divided structure that facilitates action on it digestive juices.
Nek-ry L. S., napr, kefir, koumiss and acidophilic and barmy milk, undergo process of maturing at rather low temperature during 12 — 18 hours that favorably affects their consistence and tastes. At the same time there is a delay of development of lactobacilli and activation of aroma-producing substances, to-rye impact to a product specific relish, lactic is braked and spirit amplifies fermentation (see). Curdled milks after souring cool for the purpose of braking mikrobiol, processes and receiving a product of more dense consistence as a result of swelling of proteins at once.
Thanks to contents milk to - you, carbon dioxide gas and alcohol of L. S. have the pleasant refreshing taste, stimulate appetite, stimulate secretory and motor activity went. - kish. path. They are acquired easier and quicker, than milk; so, in 1 hour in went. - kish. a path of the person milk is acquired for 32%, and curdled milk for 91%, in 3 hours — respectively for 44% and 96,5%. Nek-rye lactobacilli (see) are capable to get accustomed in intestines and to suppress development of putrefactive microflora that leads to braking of putrefactive processes and the termination of formation of harmful decomposition products of proteins. By selection of cultures of microorganisms it is possible to receive L. S. with the high content of vitamins of group B.
The acidophilic stick, milk yeast in the course of fermentation of milk emit antibiotic substances, to-rye have bacteriostatic and bactericidal properties. These substances (lowlands, lactolin, streptotsin and laktomin) termostabilna, pass through bacterial filters, their activity increases in more acid medium (pH 5,0 — 5,6). On it is also based to lay down. action of the nek-ry L. S. prepared on antibiotically active milk cultures. The amount of antibiotic substances increases with increase in acidity of a product.
The chemical structure of a number of L. S. is brought in table 1.
At disturbance of technology of preparation and storage of L. S. in them toxins (more often staphylococcal), defiant food poisonings can collect (see. Toxicoinfections food ).
Prevention of the food poisonings of a bacterial origin (including and staphylococcal intoxications) connected with the use of L. S. comes down to the prevention of hit of pathogenic microorganisms in milk, to creation of the conditions interfering intensive reproduction of microbes (rapid cooling of svezhevydoyenny milk to 10 °, its transportation at a temperature which is not exceeding 10 °, obligatory pasteurization of the milk intended for production of L. S., storage of ready L. S. at a temperature in the range from 0 to 8 °).
Ready L. S. before transfer to retail chain stores store them at t ° 8 — 10 ° during 6 — 12 hours, but no more than 1 — 2 days. The retail chain stores of L. S. shall be stored at t ° 0 — 8 °, cottage cheese and sour cream — no more than 3 days, kefir, koumiss, curdled milks, acidophilus milk — no more than 24 hours
the Characteristic of some lactic products
Curdled milks promote improvement of appetite, increase in department of digestive juices. They have high biol, value thanks to the content of vitamins of group B, sincaline, lecithin and antibiotic substances. The lactobacilli which are contained in curdled milks promote oppression of putrefactive microflora and consequently, to decrease in putrefactive and fermentative processes in intestines. All types of curdled milk have aperient effect; they are shown at diseases of a liver and bilious ways since strengthen department of bile and its exit in a duodenum, at pancreatitis, colitis and gastritises with secretory insufficiency.
Ordinary curdled milk is produced on pure growths of lactic streptococci, mechnikovsky — with use of a lactic streptococcus and Bulgarian stick (see). Also fermented baked milk, varenets, Youzhny and Snezhok drinks belong to curdled milks. Youzhny drink on a consistence reminds liquid sour cream, but without department of serum. Snowball drink contains fillers in the form of sugar syrup or fruit and berry syrups (crimson, lemon, blackcurrant, cherry).
Yogurt prepare on the ferment containing a lactic streptococcus (thermophilic) and the Bulgarian stick. It has the increased amount of nonvolatile solids of milk that is reached by a preliminary condensation of milk in vacuum devices or by addition of milk skim milk.
Acidophilus milk prepares by souring of milk the mixed culture of a lactic streptococcus and acidophilic stick.
Acidophilic products (acidophilic milk, acidophilic paste and atsidofilnodrozhzhevy milk) prepare, using pure growths of an acidophilic stick. These products on the properties are medical.
Acidophilic milk differs in rather high acidity and viscosity, has the expressed antibiotic properties therefore is stronger, than curdled milk, suppresses putrefactive microflora in intestines; besides, acidophilic milk increases phagocytal activity of leukocytes. The regulating influence of acidophilic milk on secretory and motor functions is revealed went. - kish. a path in this connection it is shown at treatment of gastritises and enterit at children of advanced age, and also colitis at adults.
Acidophilic paste has a consistence of dense sour cream and represents the concentrated culture of an acidophilic stick. Owing to the high content of antibiotic substances acidophilic paste possesses the expressed action on putrefactive bacteria of intestines and finds application in quality to lay down. means at locks, a meteorism, gastritises with secretory insufficiency, ulcer colitis. Existence of antibiotic properties allowed doctors to apply a nek-eye acidophilic paste to treatment of purulent wounds as outside means in a complex with other drugs.
Acidophilic and barmy milk turns out at fermentation of milk an acidophilic stick and milk yeast. It is recommended to use at treatment of tuberculosis, intestinal diseases, a furunculosis.
Sour cream has high tastes and is a good source of milk fat and energy (to 384 kcal in 100 g).
Cottage cheese represents the proteinaceous lactic product received from pasteurized milk during the souring by its pure growths of a lactic streptococcus with the subsequent removal of serum. Cottage cheese has high biol, value thanks to contents in it in enough all irreplaceable amino acids, especially such important as a lysine, methionine and tryptophane. Cottage cheese promotes improvement of amino-acid structure of food. The methionine and sincaline which are contained in cottage cheese cause lipotropic action of this product that allows to use it for the purpose of prevention of diseases of a liver. High content of methionine in cottage cheese promotes removal from an organism of cholesterol in this connection cottage cheese is considered as prophylactic of atherosclerosis. Cottage cheese possesses diuretic action and is a part of diets at disturbance of azotovydelitelny function of kidneys, at an idiopathic hypertensia, etc. Cottage cheese is a good source of digestible mineral substances, especially calcium and phosphorus. It is especially necessary for the persons having the increased need for mineral substances — for children, teenagers, pregnant women and nursing mothers.
Kefir prepare from pasteurized milk. To lactic fermentation in it there is also a spirit fermentation caused by milk yeast. Kefir increases gastric secretion, tones up nervous and cardiovascular systems, thanks to existence of lactobacilli reduces processes of rotting and fermentation in intestines, promotes increase in a diuresis, increases removal of urea and other products of a nitrogen metabolism, and also chlorides and phosphates; at its use department of pancreatic juice amplifies. Kefir is widely used in food of children of early age.
Kefir is produced 1%, 2,5% and 3,2% of fat content.
The milk industry releases low-fat and low-fat products raised biol, the values (enriched with protein, fruktovoyagodny fillers) — fruit kefir, Kolomna and Moscow drinks.
Koumiss prepare from mare's milk by fermentation it cultures of lactobacilli and milk yeast. In mare's milk there is a lot of albumine, to-ry at fermentation drops out in the form of extremely small gentle flakes. Proteins of mare's milk during the maturing of koumiss are split on simpler — peptones and proteoses. Fats of mare's milk are in smaller suspension therefore soak up sya in intestines easier, than fats of cow's milk. On degree of a maturity koumiss happens weak, average and strong. Koumiss contains almost all water-soluble vitamins, including ascorbic, folic and pantothenic to - you. It is established that koumiss has a promoting effect on the hemopoietic bodies, is the good activator of gastric secretion, strengthens biliation and pancreatic juice, strengthens a tone of a stomach and a peristaltics of intestines. It found broad application at treatment of many diseases, especially tuberculosis and diseases went. - kish. path.
Koumiss is produced also from cow's milk. By outward and tastes it differs from mare's a little.
Ayran — the lactic drink extended in the Caucasus in Central Asia, Kazakhstan, in Altai. He is trained from the removed boiled milk (cow, sheep or goat) by souring by microflora of complex structure (ferment milk usually old ayran).
Curt receive by mixing of ayran with milk, an otzhatiya and drying. This concentrated by L. S. prepare in Kazakhstan. It well remains quite long time and serves for preparation of soups and the acid, satisfying thirst drink.
Chal, a lactic product, widespread in the Turkmen SSR, prepare from the raw camel milk fermented ready roan. It has complex structure of microflora (a lactic stick, streptococci, yeast), contains up to 1,6% of alcohol and to 6,5 mg of % ascorbic to - you.
Cheeses represent a concentrate of the nutrients which are contained in milk. They contain complete protein (15 — 30%), digestible milk fat (to 30%), a large amount of calcium (600 — 1000 mg of %) and phosphorus (400 — 700 mg of %). Cheese contains also salts of magnesium, potassium, sodium and microelements, vitamins A (0,2 mg of %), thiamin (0,14 — 0,65 mg of %), Riboflavinum (0,34 — 0,6 mg of %). On a way of production distinguish cheeses abomasal and lactic. Abomasal cheeses are cooked by coagulation of milk by rennin or pepsin with after-treatment of a clot. In the course of maturing of cheeses occurs microbiological and physical. - the chemical proteolysis to peptones, peptides, amino acids and ammonia, fat — to free fat to - t, lactose — to milk to - you. These transformations of feedstuffs promote their easier assimilation.
Proteins of cheese contain all irreplaceable amino acids, and in process of maturing of cheese their quantity increases.
High content in cheese of digestible proteins, salts of calcium and phosphorus allows to recommend it for food of children, teenagers, pregnant women and nursing mothers.
Specific taste and aroma of cheeses depends on existence in them milk to - you, flying fat to - t, carbonyl compounds and on products of a deep albuminolysis. Pungent odor cheeses are given contained in them flying fat to - you, to - ry promote increase in appetite of ii to improvement of digestion of food.
Very strong and salty cheeses (a Roquefort cheese and sheep cheese) increase secretion and gastric acidity, kidneys and a liver irritate, cause thirst. Therefore they are contraindicated at gastritis with hypersecretion, colitis, a peptic ulcer, nephrite, cholecystitis, hepatitis, gout, obesity, and also the patient with hypostases of a cordial and renal origin.
At gross violations a dignity. - a gigabyte. conditions of production of cheese (is more often than some soft cheeses like sheep cheese) or during the use of strongly contaminated not pasteurized milk cheeses can become factors of transfer of activators of food toxicoinfections, and also a brucellosis, tuberculosis, typhoid, dysentery, etc., causative agents of these diseases can is long to remain in cheeses. Disturbance gigabyte. storage conditions of cheese can cause damage his cheese ticks or cheese flies.
Lactic products in food of children
Lactic products for baby food (tab. 2) are also developed from pasteurized milk by souring by its ferments prepared from pure growths of lactobacilli with addition or without addition of cultures of milk yeast. The exception makes kefir, to-ry prepares preferential on natural fungal ferment and is rare on pure growths. In lactic products under the influence of enzymes of milk bacteria there are changes of components of milk to formation of such components as enzymes, antibacterial agents, free amino acids, vitamins, lactobacilli which are favorably influencing processes of digestion and intestinal microflora of the child.
Along with advantages lactic mixes have also nek-ry shortcomings, to-rye especially it is necessary to consider during the use them for feeding. In particular, considerable acidity of a product is combined with rather high content in it in comparison with women's milk of protein, mineral substances and at the same time deficit of a number of irreplaceable factors of food. Use of L. S. in the whole volume of daily food can lead to emergence of compensatory shifts in metabolic processes, as excretory bodies of the child of chest age therefore lactic products are recommended to be used usually only in separate feedings.
For feeding of children of chest age for the first time in our country the lactic acidophilic mixes «Baby» and «Kid» are created adapted (confidants on structure to women's milk). They are recommended for feeding of children of chest age, newborn and premature at absence or a lack of milk at mother. Use of mixes at treatment is reasonable went. - kish. diseases and for the purpose of their prevention, especially in hot season. On structure and a direction of use these mixes almost do not differ from similar sweet milk mixes (see). At their production the acidophilic ferment consisting of acidophilic sticks is used. The acidophilic stick possesses especially favorable action on intestinal microflora of the child thanks to high content milk to - you, formed of lactose in the course of fermentation of milk, to strong bactericidal action on the microorganisms causing in children of a digestive disturbance.
During the feeding premature and children of the 1st month of life the acidophilic adapted mixes are recommended to be combined with sweet milk mixes.
There is a number of L. S., to-rye are used during the feeding, but on structure they are not brought closer to women's milk and are allocated in group adapted not completely and not adapted. Kefir concerns to them, to-ry stimulates secretion of digestive juices, biliation. Contained in kefir milk to - that hydrolyzes fat and provides more gentle curdling of protein. The formed enzymes participate in splitting of carbohydrates. The beneficial effect of kefir on intestinal microflora is noted.
In food of children of the first 3 months of life cultivations of kefir — mix B and B are applied. For their preparation groat broths — rice, oat, buckwheat or flour from this grain are used. Whole kefir is recommended during the feeding of children 3 months are more senior.
The main representatives of microorganisms of kefiric ferment are lactic sticks, lactic streptococci, acetic-acid bacteriums and milk yeast. The best is ferment, in a cut the ratio between fungi and milk makes 1: 20. The best temperature of souring 20 — 22 °. Duration of souring of 14 — 16 hours, its termination is established on acidity of a clot, edges shall be apprx. 80 ° but to Turner. For development of spirit fermentation kefir after souring is matured in the refrigerator at t ° 6 — 8 °. Depending on duration of endurance distinguish weak (one-daily allowance), average (two-day) and strong (three-day) kefir. In baby food one is used - and two-day kefir.
In a number of the republics of the Soviet Union ready L. S. use in food of children both chest age, and more seniors. In Armenia with the same purpose produce mix Narin. The product is biologically active first of all due to ability to produce the antibiotic substances suppressing development of causative organisms, preferential groups of intestinal infections. In Georgia also the mix «Yoghurt» fermented by proteolytic enzymes vegetable (fition) and an animal (pepsin) of an origin is developed. The product is intended for food of the babies transferred to the mixed and artificial feeding.
In Kyrgyzstan and other republics of Central Asia «Biolakt» and «Biolakt-2», to-ry, unlike Biolakt are eurysynusic, it is enriched with copper, iron, ascorbic and nicotinic to-tami. «Биолакт» and «Biolakt-2» are recommended for feeding of healthy children, used also in quality to lay down. food at dyspepsias, hron, frustration of food.
Baldyrgan («Athlete») — the lactic product produced in the Kazakh SSR it is similar to Biolakt, prepares on the basis of cow's milk, but with additional enrichment by a number of biologically active agents for the purpose of approach for women's milk.
Lactic products, to-rye are used for correction of feeding and to lay down. food, differ or high concentration of lactobacilli that increases their biological activity, or the increased content of separate feedstuffs, in particular a squirrel. Carry acidophilic milk, acidophilic and barmy and propionew-acidophilic milk, a pakhtanye to them.
Propnonovo-atsidofilnoye milk is used in a children's dietetics. Ferment of propionew-acidophilic milk consists of an acidophilic stick and a propionic stick Shermen. A wedge, tests of a product showed that among L. S. this milk possesses the most expressed antimicrobic and antibiotic action, richly ascorbic to - that and vitamins of group
of V. Pakhtanye — the lactic product (fat-free) with the increased protein content and carbohydrates. The product is used for correction of feeding and with to lay down. the purpose at frustration of food.
In food of children, in addition to liquid fermented milk products, acidophilic paste, the cottage cheese, cottage cheese sterilized in packaging are used. These products are used for correction of feeding, and also in food of children to 3-year age. For healthy children of preschool and school age the dairy products applied in food of adults are recommended.
Table 1. Chemical composition and properties of some lactic products
Table 2. Classification and nutrition value of lactic mixes for baby food
Bibliography: Blochina I. N., Zhukov N. P. and Fayerman N. N. Experience of use in clinical nutrition of children of the drugs normalizing intestinal microflora and perspectives of their use, Pediatrics, No. 7, page 47, 1977; Davidov R. B. and With about-kolovskiyv. P. Moloko and dairy products in food of the person, M., 1968; Dyachenko P. F., etc. Technology of milk and dairy products, M., 1974; Zaverbnyym. And. igoncharenko L. I. Lactic products in a children's dietetics, in book: Diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the digestive system at children of advanced age, under the editorship of E. M. Lukyanova, page 205, Kiev, 1968; Korobkina G. S. ibrentsm. Ya. New fermented milk and fatty products for baby food, Pediatrics, No. 7, page 22, 1977; JI and-patovn. H. Production of cottage cheese (theory and practice), M., 1973; Petrovsky y K. S. Gigiyena of food, page 141, M., 1975; Pokrovsky A. A. Fiziologobiokhimichesky bases of development of products of baby food, M., 1972, bibliogr.; Skorodumovaa. M. Dietary and medical fermented milk products, L., 1961; The Reference book on a children's dietetics, under the editorship of I. M. Vorontsov and A. V. Mazurin, L., 1977; Studenikinm. I. and Ladodo K. S. Pitaniye of children of early age, L., 1978, bibliogr.
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