From Big Medical Encyclopedia

LABOR UNION OF HEALTH WORKERS — the mass public organization combining workers and employees of institutions, the organizations, the enterprises, associations and state farms of M3 of the USSR, Min-va of the medical industry of the USSR, Central office on management of resorts of labor unions, the Union of societies of the Red Cross and Red Crescent of the USSR, military-medical institutions, and also teachers, students and pupils of the highest and average special educational institutions I M3 research institutes of the USSR and Min-va of the medical industry of the USSR. In 1981 in labor union the St. 7 million persons consisted.

History of emergence of labor union of medics is closely connected with the general development of trade-union movement and health care in our country (see. Health care ). The first union of druggists was created in days of revolution of 1905 at the I All-Russian meeting of druggists. At the same time there were labor unions of paramedics, nurses. Their activity at that time came down to economic struggle — for improvement of working conditions, reduction of the working day and increase in the salary, and also to protection of legal interests of workers.

In the years of reaction and in the years of World War I most labor unions was crushed. The February bourgeois-democratic revolution activated the trade-union movement. During this period were created the prof. of association of nurses, company paramedics, midwifes, nurses; in the large centers of the country — Petrograd, Moscow, Kiev, Odessa and other cities there were first prof. of association of doctors.

In December, 1917 in Petrograd the general meeting of initiative group of the doctors, druggists, doctor assistants and nurses who are actively supporting the Soviet power took place. This group developed the draft of the charter of the joint labor union of medics answering to the principles of democratization of medical and sanitary business, legal and economic protection of medics.

Bases of the union which received soon clear organizational forms were put at the beginning of 1918 in Moscow by group of physicians Bolsheviks and democratically spirited doctors led by I. V. Rusakov.

In March, 1919 in Moscow the I All-Russian congress of health workers took place, on Krom the labor union «Vsemediksantrud» (The All-Russian medical and sanitary work) which combined 134 thousand members was created. In 1920 V. I. Lenin made a speech at the II All-Russian congress of labor union «Vsemediksantrud» with the welcoming speech, he told: «Cooperation of representatives of science and workers — only such cooperation will be able to destroy all oppression of poverty, diseases, dirt. And it will be made» (V. I. Lenin, Half-N of SOBR. soch., 5th prod., t. 40, page 189). In response to an appeal of the leader to turn all determination, all experience of civil war on fight against epidemics apprx. 200 medics directly from a congress came out to the front for the organization of medical aid to fighters of Red Army, for fight against epidemics. The III All-Russian congress of labor union «Vsemediksantrud» which took place in October, 1921 confirmed positions of labor union on the main questions of health care, recognized that the principles of unity of the Soviet medicine and free medical aid shall remain leading and at the new economic policy. The congress spoke against opening private to lay down. institutions. In December, 1922 the IV All-Russian congress of labor union «Vsemediksantrud» took place. It was adopted the Charter of labor union, the provision on local committees and on operating time of personnel in to lay down. - the prof. institutions. In June, 1924 at the V All-Russian congress the labor union «Vsemediksantrud» was renamed in \by U-00AB\Medsantrud» (medical and sanitary work). At the VI congress of labor union «Medsantrud» in 1926 some changes were made to the charter, established the systematic reporting of trade-union bodies before members of labor union, frequency of elections of governing bodies. In 1934 in each federal republic the labor union «Medsantrud» led by the Central Committee was created. In March, 1949 at the I All-Union congress of labor union of medics there was a trade union association «Medsantrud» of federal republics in uniform labor union of medics of the country. The list of All-Union congresses of medics and their main activities are provided in the table.

The item of page of masculine is under construction on bases of democratic centralism. This principle means a combination of the centralized leadership in activity of labor union to a wide initiative of local trade-union bodies, active participation of workers in life of labor union. All trade-union bodies are from top to bottom elected members of labor union and report to them. Decisions of the trade-union organizations for any questions are made at meetings, conferences, congresses by a majority vote of members of labor union. A basis of labor union are primary organizations which there is a St. 60 thousand. Primary trade-union organization is created from the members of labor union working in one medical establishment, the enterprise, the organization or students in one educational institution in the presence of not less than 5 members of labor union. The supreme body of primary trade-union organization is the general meeting of members of labor union. For carrying out daily work primary trade-union organization elects trade-union committee (trade-union committee), and the trade-union organization combining less than 15 members of labor union — the professional organizer. In 1981 there were 2,5 million activists of P. of in the masculine page.

The supreme body of P. of page of masculine is the congress which is convened once in 5 years. The congress hears reports on activity of the Central Committee of labor union and audit commission, defines tasks of labor union and again elects the Central Committee of labor union, audit commission, approves the charter of labor union. During the period between congresses plenums of the Central Committee of labor union are convened, for the leadership in daily work the presidium and the secretariat are elected. The Central Committee of labor union carries out work, leaning on a wide trade-union asset.

V. I. Lenin defined the main task of labor unions: to be school of management, school of a hozyaynichanye, school of communism. For implementation of these tasks labor unions have the big rights provided by the Provision on the rights of FZMK, set by the Constitution of the USSR (1977).

The item of page of masculine actively participates in production activity of healthcare institutions, health resorts of labor unions and enterprises of the medical industry, will organize and directs a socialist competition and the movement for the communistic relation to work, cares for increase in political and production activity of workers, for their education in the spirit of the Soviet patriotism and internationalism. The item of page of masculine is designed to help medics to develop skills of management of the public and public affairs, to widely involve them in production management and health care.

According to the Constitution of the USSR labor unions are given the right of a legislative initiative. The Central Committee of labor union of medics participates in development and discussion of development plans for health care, the medical industry and resorts, considers new systems of compensation, exercises control of labor protection and of observance of the labor legislation. At the Central Committee of labor union of medics there are legal and technical inspections of work.

All work in labor union is based on the basis of broad amateur performance of workers. Almost all primary, and also most regional (city) committees of P. of in the masculine page function on a voluntary basis. The item of page of masculine carries out a lot of work on strengthening of international bonds with related labor unions and the organizations of workers of health care of foreign countries. In 1982 such bonds were supported more than with 100 national organizations of workers of health care of 63 countries.

The Central Committees of labor union of medics together with M3 of the USSR and Min-vom of the medical industry of the USSR issue «The medical newspaper» (see).

Bibliography: Novak L. I. Labor union of health workers, M., 1980; Rodionova E. I. Sketches of history of the professional movement of health workers, M., 1962; 60 years of the Soviet health care, glavn. edition B. V. Petrovsky, page 7, 293, M., 1977.

L. I. Novak.