From Big Medical Encyclopedia

LABOR PROTECTION — system of the acts, social and economic, organizational, technical, hygienic and lechebnoprofilaktichesky actions and means ensuring safety, preservation of health and efficiency of the person in the course of work.

In imperial Russia O. of t. was the burning issue inseparably linked with fight of working class for the release. From year to year traumatism since working conditions were extraordinary heavy grew, and instruments of production did not meet elementary safety requirements. In the article «New Slaughter» V. I. Lenin wrote: «Thousands and tens of thousands of people working all life on creation of foreign wealth perish from hunger strikes and from constant malnutrition, die prematurely of the diseases generated by disgusting working conditions, a beggarly situation of dwellings, a lack of rest» (V. I. Lenin, Half-N of SOBR. soch., prod. 5, t. 5, page 14).

Under the influence of performances of workers the imperial government in 1897 was forced to limit the working day to HV2 of hour and to establish festive rest. However manufacturers with impunity sabotaged this law, and a year later they strove for cancellation of restrictions of overtime works, having used this backdoor way for the actual return to former working conditions. V. I. Lenin defined problems of party in the field of labor protection of workers. They were included in the special, devoted to questions of labor protection section of the party program adopted by the II congress of RSDRP in 1903. The Bolshevik party at the VI congress made the program demand for labor protection again: «The intolerable working conditions created in the conditions of war by the actual cancellation of those pathetic gains in the field of labor protection which were got before war put forward a problem of fight for the widest, comprehensive working legislation» («the CPSU in resolutions...», t. 1, 8 prod., p. 493).

From the first days of the Soviet power care of creation at the enterprises of healthy and safe working conditions, about preservation and extension of working ability of people, about their creative development became the major nation-wide business.

On November 11, 1917 one of the first acts of the Soviet power — the Decree about the 8-hour working day was adopted, in Krom duration of working week was limited to 48 hours, and for the persons occupied in productions with harmful working conditions the shortened working hours were provided. The decree was imbued with special care of labor protection of women and teenagers.

Further decrees about transfer of the case O. of t were issued. in hands of workers — elective of of labor unions of inspection of work; about the organization of technical inspection from specialists inzhe-not ditch; about providing to all workers of annual vacations with full preservation of monetary pay, etc.

In 1918 the first Labour Code — the LABOUR CODE of RSFSR was issued. In the II party program special attention was paid to questions of labor protection and attraction to this business of workers, and in 1922 the new Labour Code was adopted, to-ry fixed requirements in area O. of t., formulated at the VIII congress of RCP(b).

In 1930 the XVI congress defined tasks in the area O. of t. in the conditions of rapid development of the industry and a role of labor unions in this case. In the program of the CPSU adopted by the XXII congress it is specified that one of the most important problems of rise in national well-being is every possible improvement and simplification of working conditions.

In the report of the Central Committee of the CPSU to the XXV congress it was emphasized that among social tasks is not present more important, than care about health of the Soviet people; The XXVI congress of the CPSU paid much attention to questions of further improvement of working conditions.

The major provisions in area O. of t. are enshrined in the Constitution of the USSR, and also in the «Bases of the legislation of USSR and federal republics about work» which are put into operation since January 1, 1971, according to-rymi Labour Codes (Labour Code) of federal republics are drafted. Regulations on O. of t. are enshrined in laws of USSR and federal republics, and also in resolutions of Council of ministers of the USSR and councils of ministers of federal republics, resolutions of the State Committee of the USSR on work and social problems, the State Committee for Construction of the USSR and other public authorities, in instructions and orders of the ministries and departments, in decisions of local authorities on the questions entering their competence.

In our country it is developed and the system of normative documentation on labor protection, including norms and requirements for types of the dangerous and harmful production factors, to the production equipment, productions and means of protection working and also the construction norms and rules applied at design and operation of subjects to production appointment works.

Since 1972 work on standardization in the field of safety of work is developed. The Occupational Safety Standards System (OSSS) is a component of the state system of standards (see. Occupational safety standards system ).

In standards and technical specifications on the equipment, tekhnol, processes, materials and substances join the sections of «Safety requirement» developed on the basis of the SSBT standards.

One of idiosyncrasies of the Soviet system of the organization O. of t. the fact that in establishment of the legislation according to O. of t is., rules and norms on to the accident prevention (see) and production sanitation (see), and also the most mass public organization of workers — labor unions actively participates in control of their observance.

According to the labor legislation any enterprise (the workshop, the site) cannot be opened up if on it healthy and safe working conditions are not provided.

Commissioning of the new and reconstructed subjects to production appointment is not allowed without the permission of the bodies exercising the state sanitary and technical inspection and also technical inspection of work of labor unions and committee of labor union of the enterprise putting an object into operation.

The administration of the enterprise, establishment, organization is obliged to provide strict respect for norms and rules on safety of work, tekhnol, regulations and duties all employees of the enterprise, to implement sovr, the means of the accident prevention and production sanitation preventing operational injuries and occupational diseases to provide instructing and training of workers and employees in safe methods and methods of work.

Decisive means of improvement of working conditions, transformations of all productions in safe and convenient for the person modernization of the national economy on the basis of the safe equipment and tekhnol, processes is. On the solution of this task in the area O. of t. also the main efforts of our state are directed. At the same time special significance is attached to complex mechanization and the industrial automation, and first of all in the industries where the considerable number of workers is engaged with hard manual skills, and also at works underground and with unhealthy conditions of production.

Become usual on production industrial robots (see). The created capacities for release of robots and control systems of them will allow to exempt in our country from hard, harmful, dangerous, monotonous and tiresome work considerable number of working in the nearest future and to use them at works with favorable conditions of work.

In the conditions of capitalist about-va use in production of the latest scientific and technical developments quite often turns around against workers — millions of people throw out for gate of factories and plants. For the 70th the army of the unemployed increased in the developed capitalist countries twice, having reached in 1980 19 million persons.

In prevention of traumatism and occupational diseases are important tekhnich. O.'s means of t. From year to year in the USSR production of fans, air conditioning equipments, sovr, the lighting equipment and other means of collective protection, and also the equipment and devices of control of levels of dangerous and harmful production factors extends. About 60 million which are working for free are provided with overalls, special footwear and other individual protection equipment.

In creation of the safe equipment and tekhnol, processes and providing healthy working conditions on production in our country the timely solution of the scientific problems which are put forward by technical progress is of great importance. More than 800 research, proyektnokonstruktorsky organizations, scientific and production associations, and also higher education institutions take part in their decision. Among them 8 scientific institutions on labor protection of the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions, 37 in-t of a hygienic profile, 33 industry in-that and independent laboratories according to the accident prevention and production sanitation, 440 divisions of O. of t. industry scientific research institutes and the design organizations, and also 283 departments and laboratories of labor protection in higher education institutions.

Cross-industry scientific problems O. of t. decide according to the uniform program approved by the State committee on science and technology, the State Planning Committee of the USSR and the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions. It is a component of the state plan of economic and social development of the USSR.

Annually comes to the end St. 1800 research and opytnokonstruktorsky works on O. of t.

The Soviet scientists in the commonwealth with scientists of other socialist countries carry out a lot of work on unification and standardization of norms and requirements for safety of work, complex researches on radiation safety, industrial acoustics, ergonomics, individual protection equipment and other problems O. of t are conducted., results to-rykh find broad application in the national economy of member countries of SEV.

The USSR in terms of the scope of and to the level of researches, a variety of the resolved issues, the number of specialists and scientific institutions in the area O. of t. comes to the forefront among industrialized countries. Work on O. of t. at the enterprises it is conducted on five-year industry comprehensive plans of improvement of conditions, labor protection and sanitary and recreational actions which are a component of plans of economic and social development of the enterprises and the industries of the national economy. The state allocates considerable allocations for their implementation. Comprehensive plans are formed with the assistance of labor unions; in them actions for reconstruction and overhauling of production objects, reduction of a condition of working conditions are provided in compliance with sovr. gigabyte. requirements and norms. Actions of comprehensive plans join in collective agreements and the agreements on labor protection signed annually by administration and the trade-union organization of the enterprises.

In a package of measures for fight against production traumatism (see) and occupational diseases (see) the great value in our country is attached to training of technical workers (ITR) and workers in safe methods and methods of work. In all technical and page - x. higher education institutions preparation according to O. of t. future specialists are carried out at the special departments completed with necessary shots and equipped with the corresponding equipment and devices. In technical schools and technical training colleges pupils study questions of the accident prevention and production sanitation. The workers receiving qualification at the enterprises study safe methods and methods of work in O.'s offices of t. and directly in workplaces.

At a number of higher educational institutions professional development of employees of services O. of t is organized permanent f-you. and technical inspection of work of labor unions. In industry in-ta of professional development of ITR receive necessary data on the newest questions of labor protection. The large number of textbooks, books, articles, posters, movies and filmstrips is issued.

For strengthening of attention of trade-union and economic organizations to questions of improvement of working conditions in the country public musters «For safe work and high culture of production» are systematically taken, exhibitions and other actions will be organized. Active participation in creation of healthy and safe working conditions on production is accepted by workers. The wide spread occurance finds three-stage control of a condition of working conditions, the movement under the motto «Work It Is Highly Productive, without Injuries and Accidents» in the national economy, etc.

An important link in regulation of working conditions is the legal regulation of operating time and time of rest. For years of the Soviet power duration of operating time in our country is constantly reduced also in a crust, time cannot exceed 41 hour a week. For the persons occupied at works with harmful working conditions, at underground works and also for teachers, doctors and some other categories of workers the reduced duration of operating time is established. Rationing of duration of operating time of all workers and employees is carried out by the state with participation of labor unions. Overtime works are applied in exceptional cases, at the obligatory consent of FZMK of labor union. Limit rates of overtime works for one worker or the employee are established no more than 4 hours within 2 days in a row and no more than 120 hours a year. Duration of weekly continuous rest shall be not less 42nd hour.

All worker and the employee are granted annual vacations (not less than 15 working days) with preservation of the place of work and average earnings. A number of categories of workers is granted leaves lasting 24, 36, 48 working days.

To the persons occupied at works with harmful working conditions additional issue (from 6 to 36 working days), the raised tariff rates, extra charges to the salary are established, milk and other equivalent foodstuff are given free of charge according to norms or to lay down. - professional, food, and also pensions on the preferential bases and in preferential sizes are established. So, the workers and employees occupied at underground works in hot workshops and at other works with harmful and severe conditions of work, have the right to receive pension: men in 50 — 55 years and women in 45 — 50 years at smaller length of service.

Our state shows continuous care about health of women, creating them conditions for active participation in work and public life. Special attention is paid to labor protection of women for the purpose of prevention of specifically harmful effects of production factors on their organism. By the Soviet legislation use of work of women at works with severe and harmful conditions is forbidden, underground, the lowered limit rates of carrying and movement of weights are established, overtime and night works are limited.

Rationalization of work-rest schedules is of great importance for improvement of working conditions of women. From the available St. 400 physiologically reasonable modes the majority is developed for professions where it is applied preferential or exclusively female labor.

Special care surrounded the pregnant women, mothers nursing and the women having children aged up to one year. They are forbidden to be involved at night, to overtime works, on the weekend, to send to a business trip. Pregnant women are transferred to easier work with preservation of average earnings. Their dismissal at the initiative of administration is not allowed (see. Protection of motherhood and childhood ).

Considering age and anatomofiziologichesky features of an organism of teenagers, the law establishes the minimum age of reception them for work of 16 years. In exceptional cases with the permission of FZMK persons at the age of 15 years can be employed. Employment is allowed only after preliminary medical examination, to-ry then repeats annually before achievement of 18 years. Use of work of persons aged up to 18 years on hard and underground work, at works with harmful or dangerous working conditions, and also connected with movement of weights over certain weight norms is forbidden.

The law establishes duration of operating time no more than 36 hours a week for persons aged from 16 up to 18 years and 24 hours for persons aged from 15 up to 16 years. Teenagers are granted leave lasting one calendar month, they are not allowed to be involved in overtime and night works and in work on the weekend. Dismissal of the persons which did not reach 18 years from work is allowed, in addition to observance of the general order of dismissal, only with the consent of the regional (city) commission on affairs of minors (see. Health protection of children and teenagers ).

In the capitalist countries legal O.'s level of t. it is extremely low; as a rule, there is no strict restriction of duration of operating time. According to the International Labour Organization (ILO), the actual duration of operating time in a week (1978) made: in the USA — in manufacturing industry 40,4 hours, mining 43,4 hours; in Japan respectively 42,7 and 43,4 hours; in Germany — 41,7 and 40,8 hours; in Great Britain — 43,5 and 47,2 hours. In general on the national economy this indicator is equal in the USSR 39,4 hours. In the USA and other capitalist countries immigrant workers work to 14 hours a day, receiving for it a scanty payment. Laws on O. of t do not extend to them., payment of doles.

In a number of the capitalist countries the paid maternity leaves are not granted, the place of work upon termination of this issue does not remain. In one state of the USA preservation of the place of work for pregnant women is not guaranteed. Fear forces to lose it them to work before the childbirth and to be returned to work at once after the birth of the child. Any Scandinavian country did not ratify the convention of the ILO on protection of motherhood, on prohibition of night work for women. In a number of the capitalist countries preferential terms of work of teenagers are not regulated.

E.g., in the USA, France and some other countries the legislation does not provide the reduced duration of the working day of minors.

In Sweden the working day of the teenager reaches 10 hours, and working week the 54th hour. In Japan and Great Britain duration of rest at teenagers and adult workers and employees identical; teenagers are used on overtime works. As a rule, the minimum age of the admission of teenagers for work is low. So, in Spain it makes 15 years, in Italy works apprx. 300 thousand children more young than 14 years and much more children work illegally. In a number of the countries the legislation did not provide obligatory medical examination of teenagers at employment.

Working conditions in kapitalistich. the countries are characterized by a high level of harmful and dangerous factors of the production environment (see. Standards hygienic ). Basic feature of rationing maximum allowable concentrations (see) in the USSR and other socialist countries the fact that the established standards are designed to prevent development of occupational diseases or any aberrations in the state of health at working and their posterity in the conditions of daily influence of toxics during the working day during the work is the long time is unlimited. In the USA and other capitalist countries the nek-ry risk of a disease at the established standards is allowed.

Comparison of admissible standards for 212 identical substances which are contained in lists of the USSR and the USA showed that 39,2% of standards of the USA by 10 times and more exceed the Soviet maximum allowable concentrations, and 15,2% exceed them by 50 times and more.

Standards in the socialist countries, and also in Finland are valid the law, in other capitalist countries are recommendatory. Both optimum, and admissible parameters are provided in normative documents of the USSR and some other the socialist countries microclimate (see), depending on productions and category of works. Norms consider natural climate during various seasons of year, a caloradiance and other factors, and also compliance of a functional condition of an organism and admissible parameters of a microclimate.

In the capitalist countries of the recommendation of microclimatic conditions in most cases provide extremely transferable temperatures.

Norms of artificial lighting (see) in the USSR favourably differ from foreign concerning requirements to quality of lighting, a cut plays in some cases more important role, than providing high levels of illumination. Not only restriction of an osleplennost, but also the reflected blestkost, and for installations with gas-discharge lamps — restriction of a pulsation of illumination is provided in them.

For working in buildings and rooms, in to-rykh coefficient of natural illumination less than 0,1%, installations of artificial uv radiation with special erythematous lamps shall be mounted. Preventive uv radiation is very effective concerning recreational action on a human body. In other countries compensation of ultra-violet insufficiency is not normalized.

Fundamental difference in approach to rationing of noise in the Soviet Union consists in taking note noise (see) on all human body in general, and not just on an acoustic organ as it takes place in many capitalist countries. In the USSR for constant jobs and working zones in production rooms and in the territory of the enterprises the constant broadband noise which is not exceeding a limit range of PS-80, or corresponding to it the level of a sound 85 dB is admissible And (in the USA, Germany and nek-ry other countries 90 dB And). For tone and pulse noise the amendment to norms is entered (— 5 dB).

In domestic practice rationing of non-constant noise on equivalent level is introduced for the first time that allows to consider more precisely the actual exposure of noise in workplaces. Essential advantage gigabyte. norms of the USSR and the majority of other socialist countries the fact that in them the differentiated requirements for rooms of different function (the workshop, laboratory, design office etc.) depending on the nature of work in them are given is. It allows to create optimum conditions for all categories of workers.

In the USSR tolerance levels are regulated vibrations (see), to-rye are based on the power concept of impact of vibration, edges are established as corrective action by the number of the oscillatory power absorbed by a human body. It should be noted that if in the USSR and other socialist countries there are approved normative documents on restriction of vibration of jobs, then in the capitalist countries there are no such documents, as a rule.

For the vibrations which are transferred to hands, there are no international standards; they are not also in leaders kapitalistich. countries.

O.'s condition of t. finds the reflection in statistics of operational injuries and a profzabole-vayemost. According to the ILO, published in 1979, in countries of Western Europe 15 million production accidents with disability annually are registered. In Germany the number of the production injuries having on 1000 working (coefficient of frequency) made apprx. 74 that is 2,6 times higher, than in GDR (account of injuries in these countries is kept equally \by U-2014\from four days of disability).

The number of occupational diseases annually grows in Germany. So, if during 1967 — 1971 it was registered 132 660, then for 1972 — 1976 — 173 915 cases of occupational diseases, and the coefficient of frequency increased with 1,2 in 1969 to 2,1 in 1978.

In the USA annually reports on the level of operational injuries and professional incidence in the state scale are formed on the basis of selective inspection of the enterprises of all states.

According to the Ministry of Labour, the coefficient of frequency of operational injuries with disability for 1 day and more in 1977 equaled 38 and grew for the last 5 years by 12%. According to Min-va of health care for 1978 apprx. 21 million people, or every 5th working, were affected by harmful substances.

In the industry of Japan, according to Min-va of work, for 1976 — 1978 79 920 cases of occupational diseases are registered.

In France for 1976 — 1977 it is registered in 15 primary branches of economy of 8814 cases of occupational diseases, from to-rykh 42,2% — from the outcome for disabled and 0,79% — with deadly. The coefficient of frequency of production injuries in 1978 was equal in this country (account is kept from one day of disability) 74, including with for disabled and death 8. Thus, huge profits of owners of factories and plants in the capitalist countries are wrapped for workers in death, disability or occupational disease.

The high level of traumatism and professional incidence in the capitalist countries is result of an excessive intensification of work, the nature of norms recommendatory, as a rule, and requirements for safety of work and weak state control of their observance, prevention of control of labor unions and insignificant economic sanctions for non-compliance with norms and O.'s requirements of t. It leads to mass disturbances of laws according to O. t., to exceeding established a gigabyte. standards, etc. So, in Germany public authorities register annually more than 50 thousand disturbances of laws on O. of t. minors.

The Soviet state shows continuous care of that the legislation according to O. of t. it was strictly carried out. Supervision and control are exercised by the public authorities and inspections which are not depending in the activity on administration of the enterprises, institutions and the organizations. Treat their number: Committee on supervision of safe operation in the industry and to mountain supervision (Gosgortekhnadzor); State inspectorate for Min-va power supervision of power industry of the USSR; Head department of fire protection of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR; Main thing dignity. - epid, management M3 of the USSR; Main inspectorate for control of operation of gas-purifying and dust removal systems of Min-va of chemical mechanical engineering. Min-va and departments exercise interdepartmental control of compliance with the law about work at the enterprises subordinated to them, in institutions and the organizations.

Labor unions exercise supervision and control of compliance with the law about work through the technical and legal inspections of work consisting in their maintaining. Public control is carried out by public inspectors and the commissions of FZMK of labor unions.

The officials guilty of violation of the law about work also governed according to O. t. or in hindrance of activity of labor unions in this area, bear disciplinary, administrative, criminal and liability in the order established by the legislation of USSR and federal republics.

Comparison of conditions and labor protection in the USSR and in industrially developed capitalist countries eloquently demonstrates that the Soviet Union made great progress in injury prevention and occupational diseases. At many enterprises the working conditions meeting the most modern requirements of the accident prevention and production sanitation are created. The number of accidents on 1000 working from 1970 to 1979 decreased by 32%, or on average for 3,5% a year. The Soviet Union is among the countries with the most low level. operational injuries. Systematically professional incidence decreases: from 1970 to 1979 it decreased by 42%, or on average for 4,8% a year. A number of professions with heavy and harmful working conditions is liquidated, many occupational diseases disappeared. Duration of the period of labor activity exceeded 40 years, and on the eve of Great October socialist revolution it averaged 18 years.

Main task of further development of O. of t. on perspective creation at the enterprises of the healthy and safe working conditions excluding operational injuries and occupational diseases is. Fixed assets of the solution of this task are safety of the equipment and technological processes, complex mechanization of production (see) and its automation (see. Industrial automation ), elimination of hard physical work.

At the same time consecutive upgrading and efficiency of all means of collective and individual protection from harmful and dangerous production factors, increase in volume of their production up to full satisfaction potrebno-ety the national economy and their rational use shall be carried out.

All these questions are provided in «The main directions of economic and social development of the USSR for 1981 — 1985 and for the period till 1990», accepted by the XXVI congress of the CPSU.

Along with it increase in level of organizing work of economic organizations and labor unions on management of labor protection is important; creation of jobs according to modern safety requirements of work and ergonomics; improvement of training of workers and ITR in safe methods and methods of work; strengthening of control of working conditions and state of health of working; strengthening of labor and production discipline; broad participation of workers and the healthy and safe working conditions serving in creation, generalization, distribution and implementation of the best practices in this area.

See also Occupational health , Work .

Bibliography: Labor protection in mechanical engineering, under the editorship of E. Ya. Yudin, M., 1976; To Trade-union activists about labor protection, under the editorship of. And. Item Kupchino, M., 1980; Collection of acts for work, sost. V. F. Volkov, etc., M., 1977.

M. E. Tsutskov.