From Big Medical Encyclopedia

LABORATORY OF THE AIR MEDICINE (LAM) — the specialized medical institution intended for carrying out researches and test works on an air medicine. LAMAS depending on appointment (research, scientific and practical, test, expert) have various regular and organizational structure and different volume of tasks.

The organization of the first LAMAS is directly connected with origin and development of aircraft. Practice of the first flights by airplanes showed that performance of flight is a type of activity, difficult and new to the person, and that factors of flight can adversely influence its working capacity and health. All this raised before medicine a number of new questions which could be solved only by direct studying of a human body in flight conditions. At the same time, in addition to known a wedge., fiziol., gigabyte., psikhol, and other methods of a research, special methods of studying of influence of certain factors of flight on an organism began to be developed (see. Height , Compressed-air disease , Pressure difference , Acceleration , Noise etc.). It was necessary to develop also actions for decrease or the prevention of an adverse effect of factors of flight. LAMAS were the first medical institutions for a research of the problems which arose before the new industry of medical science — air medicine (see). Though experimental works on single questions of an air medicine began to be carried out to the period of World War I, the organization of the first LAMAS treats the 20th 20 century. The Central research psychophysiological laboratory of the Air Force of RKKA founded in Moscow in 1924 was the first LAMAS in the USSR actually. At the same time in various military districts there were psikhofiziol, laboratories which were engaged in studying of flight work and direct selection of candidates for flight schools.

In 1932 the Central psychophysiological laboratory on studying of flight work of the Merchant air fleet renamed in 1933 into the Central laboratory of an air medicine of GVF was created. By the time of expansion of this laboratory there were already several laboratories at the GVF flight schools organized on type psikhofiziol. the Air Force laboratories which were engaged in hl. obr. questions psikhofiziol, selection of aircrew. With the organization in 1935. Aviation research sanitary in-that (with 1936 Ying t of an air medicine of I. P. Pavlov) comes to an end the period of formation of the Soviet air medicine as complex of the scientific disciplines solving problems of medical ensuring flight activity.

At the same time LAMAS, being basic bases of Institute of an air medicine, in the work leaned on the offices of an air medicine and psychophysiological laboratory representing as if primary research cell on an air medicine in an army link. Not only studying of single questions of an air medicine, but also implementation of its achievements in practice of aircraft, implementation of methodical management of aviation doctors, and also work of offices of an air medicine and psikhofiziol, laboratories at flight schools and aviation schools was assigned to them.

During the Great Patriotic War at department of normal physiology of Army medical college of S. M. Kirov actually replaced Ying t of an air medicine of I. P. Pavlov was created LAMAS. In laboratory the researches directed to development of recovery aids of pilots in an emergency situation and on studying of influence of differences of barometric pressure upon a human body were conducted. In post-war years in connection with development of the civil aircraft equipment and complication of the tasks solved by aircraft the role of LAMAS in development of questions of medical safety of flights considerably raised. In their work questions of studying of features of a reeducation of aircrew on new types of airplanes, problems psikhofiziol, selection, development of the methods and means increasing resistance of an organism to influence of adverse factors of flight, and development of medical requirements to protective equipment figured prominently (see. High-rise equipment ) and to recovery aids (see. Ejection ). Growth of passenger traffic by airplanes of civil aviation made necessary studying of influence of factors of flight on the persons having various diseases and features of service of such passengers in flight. A specific place was held by researches on studying of efficiency of crews of airplanes during the performance of transcontinental flights with crossing of many time zones and disturbance of usual biological rhythms (see).

LAMAS, having in the medical staffs of various specialties, actively participate in medical examination at the next and extraordinary surveys of aircrew. LAMAS of the Ministry of civil aviation along with development of scientific and practical questions in the field of aviation physiology, hygiene and psychology at the same time perform functions of vrachebnoletny commissions of experts and the medical and advisory centers for all questions of medical safety of flights.

Abroad LAMAS are created at all aviation centers which are carrying out research test works. The largest of such laboratories in the USA in Wright-Patterson (State of Ohio). From other LAMAS of the U.S. Air Force it should be noted Research laboratory of the Arctic air medicine (Fairbanks, the State of Alaska), LAMAS and school of an air medicine on air base Brooks (State of Texas). Arctic LAMAS conducts researches on studying of human opportunities in the conditions of the Arctic, to development of requirements to clothes, personal equipment, methods of work and programs of trainings of aviation specialists for work on Far North. In 1957 in France it is based LAMAS at the Flight-test center. Problems of this LAMAS are development of individual protection equipment of pilots, and also carrying out the medical researches necessary for justification of requirements to the new aircraft equipment.

In process of development of aircraft and the aviation industry there is a further specialization of aviamedical institutions in relation to specific objectives. The major aircraft constructing companies of the capitalist countries incorporate the laboratories of physiological, inzhenernopsikhologichesky and other researches providing the solution of problems of increase in overall performance of aircrew.

Bibliography: Armstrong G. An air medicine, the lane with English, M., 1954, bibliogr.; And with and to about in P. K., etc. Theory and practice of an air medicine, M., 1975, bibliogr.; Sergeyev A. A. Sketches on stories of an air medicine, M. — L., 1962, bibliogr.

H. M. Rudny.