LABORATORY ENGINEERING - set of the technical devices, devices, devices and devices giving the chance to conduct various researches in laboratories. Quite often the term «laboratory engineering» is applied to the cumulative characteristic of skills and methods of laboratory business.
Basic purpose of L. t. in medical institutions — a research physical. and chemical properties biol, liquids and fabrics, and also tests of the environment; partial or full replacement of production functions of the employee of laboratory for the purpose of simplification of work and increase in its productivity.
General tendencies of development of L. t. are defined by development of methods medical - biol, researches and aspiration to increase in accuracy of measurements and labor productivity of personnel. They are characterized by replacement of classical methods of a research (weight, volume, etc.) more sensitive, exact, high-speed and less labor-consuming (electrochemical, photometric, enzymatic etc.); replacement of the equipment giving a value visual estimate of results of researches (a Sahli hemoglobinometer, Goryaev's camera, the visual colorimeter etc.), more objective and precision indicator and measuring devices (gemoglobinometr, tsitometr the konduktometrichesky, photo-electric colorimeter etc.); increase in speed of devices and aspiration to automation of perhaps bigger number of stages a lab. researches up to full automation of often found definitions.
L. t. it can be classified: a) on scope of application: the general L. t., necessary for all or the majority medical - biol, researches, and special L. t., intended only for this direction or a type of researches; b) on character medical - biol, researches which is defined by specifics of material for a research, receptions and methods of work (for mikrobiol., biochemical, gematol., gistol., immunol., patol., dignity. - a gigabyte. researches etc.); c) in the place taken in a lab. process: for preparation for the analysis (preparation of ware, reactants, sampling, release of the studied substance), for the analysis (detection, identification, measurement), for auxiliary operations (creation of conditions for preparation for the analysis and carrying out the analysis); d) on purpose during creation of samples: all-technical L. t., applied not only in laboratories to lay down. - professional, institutions, but also for others a lab. researches, and medical L. t., created especially for medical - biol, researches.
General laboratory engineering
1. The equipment for distillation and demineralization of water: distillers, redistillators, devices for receiving depyrogenized water, akvadistillyator, devices for demineralization of water (see. Distillation ). 2. The equipment for weighing: scales are analytical, technical, ravnoplechny, the torsion, etc. (see. Scales ). 3. The equipment for centrifuging: centrifuges laboratory and clinical, vacuum and refrigerator, preparative and analytical ultracentrifuges (see. Centrifuge ). 4. The equipment for heating and thermostating: furnaces are crucible, the muffle, etc., infrared radiators, kolbonagrevatel, thermostats and ultrathermostats (see. Thermostat ), heating baths. The last are intended for transfer of heat energy from sources of heat (a flame of a torch or a spirit-lamp, the electric heater, etc.) to directly reactionary vessels. As the Wednesdays transferring heat water, oil, paraffin, sand, air are used that allows to receive the necessary temperature in reactionary vessels. 5. The equipment for stirring and hashing: vstryakhivatel, the mixers applied to acceleration of emulsification, a suspenzirovaniye, flotation, course of chemical reactions of small and viscous liquids. Stirring and hashing differ on a way of performance and intensity. In mixers hashing is carried out due to easy centrifugal fluid movement in a vessel. The mixing element is connected with the electric motor mechanically (rod mixers) or by means of magnetic field (magnetic stirrers, fig. 1). Depending on type and a design of a mixer the volume of the mixed liquid varies from 50 to 1000 ml, and the speed of rotation — from 30 to 1200 rpm. In shaking machines (fig. 2 and 3) hashing of liquids in vessels is carried out due to the movement of a platform, on a cut vessels are placed. Shaking machines differ in a variety of designs and conditions of hashing and are intended for various in a form and volume of vessels (for flasks, test tubes, large bottles, supports with test tubes etc.). Their volume from 10 ml to 3 l, loading from 1 to 60 kg, form of motion — forward, oscillatory, rotary, difficult, number of fluctuations from 100 to 300 in 1 min., amplitude of fluctuations from 5 to 40 mm, the environment can be air, liquid, time of continuous operation — from several minutes to several days. 6. The equipment for detection, identification and measurement: microscopes, lighters, devices for a mikroskopirovaniye, etc. (see. Microscope , Microscopic methods of a research ), magnifying glasses (see), colorimeters, nephelometers, spectrophotometers, refractometers etc. 7. The service equipment turns on technical means for processing a lab. ware: cars and devices for mine ki ware, drying ovens (see), refrigerators household, hoods (see), compressors, vacuum pumps etc. Majority of devices, devices and equipment L. t. are all-technical.
Special laboratory engineering
1. The equipment for mikrobiol, researches: the devices providing sterility of working conditions — autoclaves (see) or steam sterilizers (see), drying and sterilizing cases, devices for storage, cultivation and transportation of cultures — supports for bevelling of an agar, low-temperature cases (see. Refrigerators ), devices for storage of viruses; for a research of structure, structure and properties of microflora: a luminescent microscope, a supermicroscope (see. Submicroscopy ), infrared spectrophotometers (see. Spektrofotometriya ), ultracentrifuges; devices for a research of products of exchange of microorganisms with use of methods of kinetics of enzymatic processes; mass spectrometry (see) in combination with gas chromatography (see). 2. The equipment for gistol, researches: devices and devices for receiving drugs in the form of thin sections biol, fabrics (skin, a bone, muscles etc.), their subsequent coloring and crushing — microtomes, devices for editing and sharpening of microtome knifes, tissue grinders, homogenizers (see. Homogenates ), devices for coloring gistol, drugs, automatic machines (gistokhromator) for gistol, processings of fabrics (see. Histologic methods of a research ). 3. The equipment for immunol, researches: for simplification of cultivations and pouring of components serol. reactions — group dosers of Florinsky, microtitrators (fig. 4), automatic machines for definition group and a Rhesus factor accessory of blood and carrying out serol, reactions to syphilis, for a research of plasma on the Australian antigen, etc. 4. The equipment for gematol, researches: devices for definition ROE, Sahli hemoglobinometers and gemoglobinometra for definition of hemoglobin (see. Gemoglobinometriya ), Goryaev's camera for calculation of uniform elements of blood (see. cytometers ), centrifuges for definition of a hematocrit, eleven-keyboard counters for calculation of leukocytes which 8 keys have the alphabetic references corresponding to certain leukocytes and 3 keys are intended for calculation of other indicators.
Automation in hematology develops in the direction of creation: automatic devices — gemoglobinometr, counters of uniform elements of blood — tsitometr of konduktometrichesky (fig. 5), dosers of cultivations (see. Portioning devices ), automatic machines for coloring of the smears automating separate analysis stages; complexes of the devices and devices allowing to define at the same time in one blood sample several components — hemoglobin, erythrocytes, leukocytes (fig. 6), autoanalyzers (see), representing set funkts, blocks, auxiliary nodes and the COMPUTER. There are two types of auto-analyzers: a) for definition 7 — 8 gematol, parameters: hemoglobin, quantity of erythrocytes and leukocytes, an indicator of a hematocrit, concentration of hemoglobin in one erythrocyte, the average volume of an erythrocyte, a hemoglobin content in one erythrocyte, in some models — and thrombocytes; productivity of autoanalyzers of this type 50 — 80 samples an hour; b) for the differentiated calculation of various forms of leukocytes; productivity of a submachine gun 25 — 60 samples in hour 5. The equipment for tsitol, researches is similar applied in hematology: automatic machines for coloring of the analyzed biomaterial and autoanalyzers for calculation and identification of cells. 6. Measuring devices of all-technical appointment for biochemical researches biol, liquids: photoelectrocolorimeters (fig. 7), photometers, photo-electric absorptiometers, spectrophotometers (fig. 8), polarimeters, polarographs, refractometers, flyuorimetra, densitometers (fig. 9), atomic and absorbing spectrophotometers, flame photometers (fig. 10), and also the devices and devices using electric and ionic properties of liquids — the equipment for an electrophoresis (fig. 11), rn-meters, the equipment for a chromatography, osmometers etc. Apply to gravity test of liquids areometers (see), urometra, and also galactometers based on this method; for viscosity test of blood — viscometers (see. Viscosity ). For the purpose of rationalization a lab. processes on the basis of a photometer the analyzer of speed of kinetics of reactions (fig. 12) is created, the equipment (counters at - and p-radiations) is used to the radio immune and radioligandny researches differing in way of introduction of radioisotopes (see. Radio isotope research ). Specific devices for biochemical, medical - biol, researches are devices for definition acid-base equilibrium (see), blood gases (see. Gas analyzers ), systems of coagulation — gemokoagulograf, tromboelastograf, tromboelastometr (fig. 13), protrombinometra, etc. (see. Prothrombin time ).
The increasing distribution gets L. t. for express diagnosis of substrates and enzymes. Reaction of detection, identification, measurement proceeds at interaction biol, liquids with a set of the reactants which are previously applied industrially on a paper strip, a cell of a tape or forming a multilayer analytical element. Intensity of coloring is estimated and will be transformed to the corresponding units by the densitometer (see. Densitometry ).
In biochemical, researches use of the automated equipment extends, edges it is presented by mechanical devices for sampling, the dosers and electronic devices which are carrying out operations on calibration, calculation and correction of results, identification of tests, control of operation of the equipment. Mechanical devices can be structurally solved as independent products: a pipette, a cylinder for capture of test; electronic devices usually are a part of the device. Biochemical, autoanalyzers (fig. 14) differ on a set of the carried-out researches — from one specific (glucose, bilirubin, thyroxine) to 30 of the most widespread; on productivity — from 30 to 500 analyses an hour; on design — the monoblock unit or a complex funkts, blocks which can be used as an independent product; whenever possible to use specific sets of reactants or public reactants. Use of autoanalyzers the lab exerts impact on structure. services, changes methods of the organization of work, system of training of personnel. Complexes of high-performance automatic means economically are repaid in the presence of large volume same a lab. researches.
See also Laboratory .
Bibliography Automation in clinical laboratory diagnosis: opportunities and problems, under the editorship of V. V. Menshikov, M., 1977; Katz A. M. and Kantorovich A. S. The guide to devices and the equipment for medicobiological исследований^., 1976; Ways of improvement of activity of clinical diagnostic laboratories, under the editorship of V. V. Menshikov, M., 1976; Automation in microbiology and immunology ed. by G. G. He-d6n a. T. Illeni, N. Y. a. o., 1975; Laboratory instrumentation, ed. by R. Hicks a. o., Hagerstown, 1974.
A.S. Green, V. V. Menshikov.