From Big Medical Encyclopedia

LABORATORY (late lat. laboratorium, from armor. laborare to work, process) — institution, department of establishment, the enterprise for conducting pilot studies, check tests, the analysis of products and other works, and also the special room intended for their performance. L. appeared during origin of scientific research as specially equipped rooms for chemical experiences. After laboratory began to call any room equipped for carrying out researches in any branch of science and technicians and also for carrying out educational experiences.

In Russia the first L. for chemical microscopic examinations appeared in 1858 in St. Petersburg in Medicochirurgical academy. The first dignity. L. arose at the initiative of I. I. Molleson, N. A. Zolotavin, I. I. Mechnikov, N. F. Gamalei in 70 — the 80th there are 19 century. In 1914 in the country existed 61 sanitary and hygienic and apprx. 100 clinicodiagnostic L. After Great October socialist revolution in the course of creation and development of the Soviet health care and a dignity. - epid. services number L. considerably increased, and the sphere of their activity extended. Promptly the number of clinicodiagnostic L grew., what allowed to provide the vast majority in post-war years to lay down. - professional, institutions in the cities and the most part — in the village in the L.

Medical research L. as independent establishment can directly submit to the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences (e.g., Laboratory on organ transplantation and fabrics of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences) or M3 of the USSR, min.-vu health care of the federal republic. In research in-those L. is the structural division which is carrying out the researches directed to the solution of a separate problem (e.g., L. synthesis of protein etc.) or the researches based on certain methods (e.g., spectroscopic L.). In higher educational institutions the central research L are created. (for the help to departments in scientific research), problem L. (for the solution of especially important scientific problems), industry L. (for researches of applied character). In to lay down. - professional, institutions (-tsakh, policlinics, clinics, sanatoria) there are clinicodiagnostic L., sometimes with specialized departments (biochemical, serological, etc.), radiological laboratories (see), tsitol. L., being a part pathoanatomical department (see), on SES — a dignity. - chemical, bacterial., virusol. L. (see. Bacteriological laboratory , Virologic laboratory ), parazitol. L., in system court. - medical examinations — court. - medical and court. - chemical.

L. V L. work specialists with the higher and secondary medical education (see. Laboratory assistant ), technical and support personnel. Regular standards of L. to lay down. - professional, and a dignity. - epid, institutions, requirements to qualification of their employees are regulated by M3 of the USSR. Functions of employees are defined by the instructions following from the tasks facing L.

Rooms of L. are divided into the main and auxiliary. In the main rooms jobs for performance of researches are placed, laboratory engineering (see) and the equipment, in auxiliary — registration, preparation and pretreatment of material is made for a research, washing and drying laboratory glassware (see), preparation of reactants, mediums. In large L. certain rooms or jobs for various groups of analyses are allocated. In a row L. boxes for work with microorganisms are equipped, radiation protection of personnel by radoactive radiations, etc. is provided. The structure, the sizes and the equipment of rooms depend on the tasks solved in L., its state also shall provide the most rational placement of jobs taking into account requirements of occupational health and the accident prevention of personnel. V L. positive-pressure ventilation with sufficient air exchange, including for separate jobs shall be equipped (hoods), sufficient lighting (the general and local), power supply taking into account the power of all electric devices, plumbing and sanitary is provided.

As in L. heating and other electric devices, flammable solvents and reactants, L are widely used. shall be equipped with fire-prevention devices (the fire-prevention alarm system, means of automatic fire extinguishing) and manual means of suppression of fire (foam, carbon dioxide fire extinguishers, asbestos blankets, sand); the personnel shall follow strictly rules of fire safety, be able to use means of fire extinguishing, to know ways of evacuation of people and property from the room.

The clinical diagnostic laboratory would be department, policlinics, a clinic and others to lay down. - professional, institutions; it will be organized according to their structure. Type and power of L. depend on a profile and the power of establishment, to-rogo it is a part. L are most widespread. the general type, servicing multi-profile-tsu, policlinic; they make an all-wedge., gematol., biochemical, tsitol., mikrobiol., serol, researches, etc. In specialized to lay down. - professional, institutions (clinics,-tsakh, hospitals, sanatoria, clinics for women, maternity homes etc.) L. carry out the general and special a lab. the researches corresponding to a profile of establishment.

Content of activity of clinicodiagnostic L. is defined by the «Nomenclature of main types of laboratory analyses» approved by M3 of the USSR. In 1946 the nomenclature contained the 115th lab. tests, in 1970 — St. 400. Draft of the nomenclature lab. researches, developed by Committee of WHO experts, contains St. 700 names of analyses.

The smallest on number a lab. tests the obligatory minimum a lab is. researches for local BCs and medical out-patient clinics (see. Laboratory business ). It provides the following. A research of urine — assessment of its properties, detection and determination of amount of sugar and protein, detection of acetone bodies, bilious pigments and to - t, urobilinovy bodies, an indican, microscopy of a deposit (search of an epithelium, leukocytes, erythrocytes, cylinders, etc.), calculation of uniform elements (across Nechiporenko), conducting test across Zimnitsky. A research of gastric contents — assessment its physical. properties, detection milk to - you, definition of activity of pepsin and acidity, microscopy of a deposit, a tubeless research of gastric secretion. A research of contents of a duodenum — assessment of its general properties and microscopy. A research of cerebrospinal liquid (carry out only in a hospital) — assessment of its general properties, definition of a cytosis and differentiation of cellular elements, definition of protein and fractions of globulins, carrying out reactions Lange and Takat — the Macaw. Research of exudates and transsudat — assessment of their general properties, microscopy (with calculation of uniform elements and leykogramma in synovial fluid), definition of protein and conducting test of Rivalt. A research of a phlegm — assessment of its general properties and microscopy (including search of elastic fibers, asthmatic elements, mycobacteria, hemosiderin). Research a calla — assessment physical. properties, microscopy (including search of the food remains, slime, erythrocytes, leukocytes, an epithelium), a research on helminths and protozoa, detection of blood and stercobilin, carrying out reaction of Tribule — Vishnyakova. A research separated urinogenital bodies — search of trichomonads and gonokokk, definition of degree of purity of a vagina, a research of a secret of a prostate and sperm. A research different biol, materials on fungi and mycobacteria of tuberculosis. Gematol, researches — definition of ROE, amount of hemoglobin, calculation of erythrocytes, including with basophilic stippling, leukocytes (the general and by separate types of cells), reticulocytes, thrombocytes, leykogramm (method of a leykokontsentrat), definition of a bleeding time, coagulation, a hematocrit. Tsitol, researches — a research of drugs (smears) of a phlegm, urine, a secret of a prostate, pleural, ascitic, synovial and cerebrospinal liquids (in the conditions of a hospital), smears from a vagina (including for definition of a saturation of an organism estrogen), cavities of the uterus, urethras. Biochemical, blood analyses — definition of crude protein, protein fractions, sedimentary tests (timolovy, sublimate, Veltmanna, formolovy), the general cholesterol, sugar, urea, bilirubin, a prothrombin complex, fibrinogen, chlorides, activity of alpha amylase. Serol, researches — definition of Areactive protein, in the conditions of a hospital — a Rhesus factor, Rh antibodies and a blood group.

An obligatory minimum of researches for L. BC and policlinics it is differentiated depending on the power of these institutions. In it are significantly more widely presented gematol., tsitol, and biochemical, sections, bacterial is entered, undressed. A number of the researches provided in the list carry out in the presence of specialized departments (hematologic, endocrinological).

The lab is widest a minimum. researches for republican, regional, regional BCs regardless of their power. It includes, as a rule, more difficult researches, but giving the most valuable and exact diagnostic information. Similar minima are accepted for nurseries, onkol., psychiatric, tubercular BCs, maternity homes, clinics. The researches which are going beyond a minimum carry out in the centralized L. in city boundaries, the district and other administrative territories. The lists recommended for them include tsitol., biochemical, mikrobiol., immunol, researches, accuracy ««results of which is not influenced by transportation of material from to lay down. institutions in the centralized L. S the accounting of centralization practically all nomenclature of researches can be executed by network of Laboratories of area, large city, district.

The centralized clinical diagnostic laboratories are created on the basis of large to lay down. - the prof. of institutions. First of all the labor-consuming biochemical and hormonal researches demanding the special equipment and also the mass analyses made by means of various automatic and semi-automatic systems are subject to centralization (see. Avtoanalizatora ). The form of centralization is chosen depending on local conditions, according to methodical recommendations M3 of the USSR (1975). Centralization of clinicodiagnostic researches is made, as a rule, in the cities with the population of St. 75 thousand inhabitants. Centralization biochemical, researches is carried out in Laboratories of the 300 city BCs and more beds, serol, researches — in Laboratory skin venerol, clinics, bacterial, researches — in Laboratories of the infectious or city BCs having inf. departments, tsitol, researches — in Laboratories onkol, clinics. In to lay down. - professional, institutions of rural districts centralization of biochemical researches is carried out in Laboratories central and regional by BC, bacterial. researches — in Laboratories of regional SES. The order of the direction and delivery of material for a research in the centralized Laboratory from attached to lay down. - professional, institutions and the organization of its work is established by the chief physician to lay down. - professional, institutions, in structure to-rogo the Laboratory is organized.

Clinical diagnostic laboratories republican, regional, regional and regional BC are the leading Laboratories of the relevant administrative-territorial divisions. They shall provide the maximum level a lab. researches (see. Laboratory diagnosis ) and to be organizational and methodical, scientific and technical and training center for Laboratory of a certain territory. Studying and the analysis of the L given about work belong to their duties., distribution of the best practices, professional development of doctor-laboratory assistants and laboratory assistants with secondary education, rendering the advisory help, the implementation unified and new a lab. methods, implementation of interlaboratory control of work of L., preparation of reactants and mediums and supply with them on the basis of economic contracts with L. serviced to lay down. - professional, institutions.

Fig. 1. Workplace of the doctor-laboratory assistant of clinical diagnostic laboratory: 1 — the lighter dot OI-19; 2 — the MBI-3 binocular microscope.

Clinicodiagnostic L. settles according to the rules approved by M3 of the USSR and the Central Committee of labor union of medics (1970). It shall be located in one room, it is better on the first floor. Placement of L is not allowed. in cellars and semi-basements. Entrance to L. shall be separate for employees and for visitors. Structure of rooms of L. and their area are defined by the construction norms and rules approved by the State committee on affairs of construction (1978) depending on the number of analyses (120, 250, 550, 650 and 800) in day. Area of L., including auxiliary a lab. rooms, shall make not less than 20 m approximately 2 on one employee. Area actually lab. rooms — not less than 10 m 2 on the employee making a lab. researches. L. it is provided with positive-pressure ventilation, with frequency rate of exchange of air at 1 o'clock on inflow + 1,0 (in washing + 5,0) and on an extract — 3,0 (in washing — 6,0). In rooms where are made chemical, mikrobiol, and the all-wedge, researches, besides, are arranged hoods (see). Rooms of L. shall be lit with directly natural light, the relation of the area of windows to the area of a floor 1: 4 or 1:5. A workplace in L. not less than 300 lx at fluorescent lamps shall have lighting, 150 lx at filament lamps and respectively 500 and 200 lx — in rooms of urgent analyses, offices serol, researches, colorimetric. The workplace of the doctor-laboratory assistant is presented in the figure 1. During the work with microorganisms existence of desktop boxes or the boxed rooms is necessary (see. Boxes, microbiological ). In total lab. rooms shall have a water supply system, the sewerage, electricity with the grounding devices and gas. Heating is more preferable central, water. At local heating the fire chamber of furnaces is made from a corridor. In small to lay down. - professional, institutions L. can have several rooms without strict purpose them for implementation of various analyses. In the presence in the state of L. St. 4 doctor-laboratory assistants in L. can be created biochemical, kliniko-gematol., immunol., mikrobiol, offices, L. express diagnoses, etc. In laboratory the room for reception and registration of the material delivered for a research and its preparatory processing, the place for preparation of reactants, weight, washing, autoclave, the room for cooking of environments and others a lab shall be allocated. procedures, the place for storage of reactants and ware etc. In policlinic the room for capture of blood from a finger shall be allocated. V L. conditions for neutralization and destruction of infectious material are provided.

States medical and support personnel of L. are established according to standards corresponding to lay down. - the prof. of institutions. Usually in the state of L. are available the manager. laboratory — the doctor, doctor-laboratory assistants, laboratory assistants with secondary education, the medical laboratory assistant, the medical registrar and nurses. The manager L submits. to the head corresponding to lay down. - professional, institutions.

Fig. 2. Workplace of the doctor-laboratory assistant of laboratory of express diagnosis: 1 — the colorimeter photo-electric one-beam KFO; 2 — the photoelectrocolorimeter of Federal Energy Regulatory Commission-56M; 3 — a set of pipettes.

For ensuring the emergency performance lab. analyses L are created. express diagnoses and jobs (fig. 2) with the round-the-clock watch of personnel. These L. service first of all departments of intensive observation, resuscitation, a hemodialysis, operating rooms, receptions. In the list of analyses for such L. researches of acid-base equilibrium, water and electrolytic balance, chlorides, hemoglobin, indicators of a hemostasis, a hematocrit, calculation of blood cells, definition of ROE, sugar in blood and urine, acetone in urine, urea, creatinine enter blood, bilirubin, urobilinovy bodies, and also definition of some enzymes — alpha amylases in blood and urine, creatine kinases, cholinesterases, aminotransferases (is desirable). Results of researches shall be given to clinical physicians in the shortest possible time not later than in 1 hour after appointment; use of diagnostic dry tests is reasonable.

Methodical management of laboratories is performed by the republican, regional, regional organizational and methodical and control centers for laboratory business.

The standard equipment of Laboratory is defined by the order M3 USSR No. 380 of April 16, 1975, the approximate list of the equipment is provided to Krom, proceeding from number of beds to lay down. - professional, institutions or numbers of medical positions and types of the researches recommended for this establishment. The most widespread pieces of the equipment for Laboratory are: microscopes (see. Microscope ), scales analytical and technical (see. Scales ), water baths, counters 11-keyboard for calculation of leukocytes (see. Laboratory engineering ), pH-meters, photo-electric colorimeters (see. Photometry ), spectrophotometers (see. Spektrofotometriya ), thermostats (see. Thermostat ), drying ovens (see), refrigerators (see), centrifuges (see), etc.

Fig. 3. The Mobile Clinical Diagnostic Laboratory (MCDL) on the basis of the GAZ car - 66 with autonomous power supply.

For mass lab. inspections of the working industrial enterprises and country people, especially in the remote districts to lay down. - professional, institutions are equipped with mobile clinical diagnostic laboratories (fig. 3) which are placed on the GAZ car - 66 and have autonomous power supply, are equipped with the autoclave, a drying oven, the TK-37 thermostat, etc. L. it is intended for performance of the main an all-wedge, and biochemical, analyses and it can be used for strengthening of L. central regional-tsy.

Biochemical laboratory — division research in-that or large to lay down. - professional, institutions; carries out biochemical, researches of scientific or diagnostic character. Biochemical. L. in scientific research institute theoretical and a wedge, a profile investigate metabolism of the person and animals and mechanisms of his regulation are normal also at pathology.

In small to lay down. - professional, institutions biochemical, researches are carried out by personnel clinicodiagnostic in L. along with other researches, in large institutions — the special group of employees or specialized L. Postepenno carries out centralization biochemical, researches in clinicodiagnostic L. city BCs from 300 beds above, in central regional and regional-tsakh.

In 1970 biochemical, researches made up to 40% of the diagnostic methods specified in the nomenclature and if to consider semi-quantitative researches of chemical components in urine, their number is much higher. L. local BCs and medical out-patient clinics carry out 4 — 15 methods biochemical, researches, L. most BC and policlinics (depending on their power) — from 4 to 55. In the approximate list for the centralized L. the test contains 141 biochemical. Among them: a) indicators of protein metabolism (definition in blood serum of crude protein, protein fractions, residual nitrogen, amino acids, iron-binding ability of proteins; definition in blood serum and urine of creatine, creatinine, ammonia, an indican, urea, uric acid; production of tests with blood serum — timolovy, sublimate, Veltmanna, formolovy); b) indicators of lipidic exchange (definition in blood serum of the general lipids, the general cholesterol, free cholesterol and its ethers, the general phospholipids, triglycerides, the general esterified and not esterified fat to - t, lipoproteids, a lipoproteinogramma; definition of ketone bodies in blood and urine); c) indicators of carbohydrate metabolism (definition in blood of geksozamin, lemon, milk and pyroracemic to - t, a glycogen, glycoproteins, a glikoproteinogramma; definition of seromucoid and sialine to - t in blood serum); d) a research of pigments (definition in blood serum of bilirubin and its fractions; in urine and erythrocytes — uroporfirin and coproporphyrins); e) a research of water-salt and mineral metabolism (scoping of the circulating blood and plasma, the globular volume, osmolarity of blood serum and urine; the total amount of water and volume of extracellular water in an organism, sodium, potassium and chlorides in biol, liquids, calcium, magnesium, copper, iron, inorganic phosphorus in blood serum and in urine); e) indicators of acid-base equilibrium (definition of pCO2, BE, pH of blood, alkaline reserve, pH of urine); g) indicators of coagulant and anticoagulative systems of blood (definition of a calcium clotting time, tolerance of plasma to heparin, consumption of a prothrombin, true prothrombin — a factor of II, pro-accelerin — a factor of V, proconvertin — a factor VII, antigemofilichesky globulins — a factor of VIII, antithrombic activity, heparin, fibrinogen B, activity of a L-L factor, fibrinolitic activity, activity of an urokinase, anti-fibrinolysin, tolerance to fibrinolysin, a thrombotest, the test of generation of thromboplastin); h) a research of enzymes (definition of activity in blood serum of zymohexase, a guanaza, kreatinfosfokinaza, lactate dehydrogenase, lipase, malate dehydrogenase, sorbitoldegidrogenaza, aspartate aminotransferase, alaninaminotranspherase, trypsin and its inhibitors, acid phosphatase, ceruloplasmin; in biol, liquids — alpha amylases; in Calais and blood serum — an alkaline phosphatase; in serum and erythrocytes — cholinesterases; in urine — an uropepsina; in Calais — enterokinases); i) definition of a number of hormones, mediators, vitamins, heavy metals and medicinal substances.

In 1975 biochemical, researches made 12,8% of all executed in clinicodiagnostic a lab. analyses, 7,8% of analyses — for ambulatories and 17,9% — for patients in hospitals. In hospitals of large BCs biochemical, analyses made 45 — 48% whereas in rural district police officers-tsakh — only 1 — 3%. For 1970 — 1975 the general gain of number of analyses made 46,6%, and a gain biochemical, analyses reached 92,7%, the number of researches of hormones from 1970 for 1974 grew by 29,2%, factors of a hemostasis — for 89,5%, enzymes — for 122,8%, a water salt metabolism — for 138%.

Fig. 4. Workplace of the doctor-laboratory assistant of the biochemist: 1 — the densitometer; 2 — the torsion scales; 3 — measured pipettes with rubber pears in supports.

In biochemical. L. the rooms for a blood analysis equipped with centrifuges and the weight room are provided. In large L. (more than 550 analyses) the certain room for a .tsentrifugirovaniye, hormonal researches, colorimetric, the room for photometry, the office of koagulologichesky researches, an office for development of new techniques and washing are provided. For performance biochemical, researches in L. centrifuges, devices for an electrophoresis, photo colorimeters, flame photometers, flyuorimetra and spektroflyuorimetra, spectrophotometers and atomnoabsorbtsionny spectrophotometers, densitometers, etc. are used. The workplace of the doctor-laboratory assistant of the biochemist is presented in the figure 4. Significantly increase labor productivity biochemical, autoanalyzers.

The serological laboratory as independent division is available as a part of republican, regional, regional and city skin venerol, a clinic. Services to lay down. - professional, the institutions attached to it. In-tsakh and policlinics the L functions as department (office) clinicodiagnostic. Depending on a profile would carry out various serol, researches. In-tsakh the general type and inf. they would carry out agglutination tests (Veylya — Felix, Wright, Haddlson, etc.). L. at a skin venerol, clinics make serol, researches on syphilis and gonorrhea. Providing serol, besides, is assigned to them. L. to lay down. - professional, institutions by positive control serums; systematic control of quality serol, researches on venereal diseases; preparation and professional development lab. workers on a serology; rendering the methodical and advisory help to medics to lay down. - professional, institutions on capture, storage and transfer of material for researches. Creation centralized serol. L., regular standards and equipment are defined by the order M3 USSR No. 86 of February 27, 1963. Centralized serol. L. can have vivarium (see) for keeping of rams, rabbits, Guinea pigs, etc.

Parasitological laboratory — division bacterial. L., being a part epidemiol. department republican, regional, regional and city (in the cities with regional division) SES, basin SES on the water transport and road SES on. - transport.

Main areas of work of L. — identification of the persons having parasitic diseases, a dignity. - gelmintol. researches of the environment (water, the soil), vegetables, fruit, dust from objects of use for the purpose of identification of factors and ways of transfer of an invasion and a possibility of mass infection.

For identification of the persons having parasitic diseases in laboratory researches a calla, urine, perianal and rectal scraping, bile and a phlegm on existence of eggs, larvae and adult helminths are conducted (or their fragments); calla — on the elementary of intestines; a thick drop and blood smears — on causative agents of malaria, a tick-borne spirochetosis and filariases; identification of the activator of a visceral leushmaniosis in smears from marrow; statement immunol, reactions for diagnosis of a trichinosis, an echinococcosis and an alveococcosis. The children of preschool and school age, personnel of child care facilities and persons which are under control of doctors-parasitologists are exposed to inspection (the patients who arrived from tropics before performing specific therapy, etc.). L. conducts advisory and selective control researches on malaria at detection of activators.

Dignity. - gelmintol. researches are conducted during the studying of features of regional epidemiology of helminthoses in various klimato-geographical zones of the USSR, including studying of terms of development and survival of eggs of helminths in the soil, reservoirs, on vegetables, fruit, a grass, objects of use, etc.; during the carrying out constant a dignity. control of the content of child care, food and other facilities, and also at implementation precautionary a dignity. supervision; at assessment of efficiency of recreational actions in the centers and the microcenters of helminthoses; at assessment of efficiency of deworming of sewage, drain waters and their deposit, garbage on treatment facilities of various type; at control of the correct and rational use of drain waters and their deposit in agriculture or their descent in reservoirs.

Parazitol, researches are carried out by laboratory assistants with secondary education whose work will be organized and controlled by doctors parazitol. departments (departments) of SES.

The volume and the list of the conducted researches are defined by plans of SES for fight against the parasitic diseases made taking into account parazitol, situations on places and the tasks standing before parazitol. service in general.

Equipment of L. is defined by requirements of the techniques used for carrying out these or those types parazitol, researches.

Laboratories in field conditions are developed as a part of field medical institutions or are independent institutions. They are intended to hl. obr. for providing a lab. diagnoses of modern types of fighting pathology, indication and examination of weapons of mass destruction. Among them wedge., gigabyte., bacterial., pathoanatomical, court. - honey. L., etc. The concept «laboratory» is meant also as laying about a lab. equipment and reactants. Property of L. contains in the basic in the form of sets (see. Complete military-medical equipment ).

Organization of works clinicodiagnostic L. depends on features of a fighting situation, flow of wounded and patients, a type of fighting pathology.

In a complex of the clinicodiagnostic events held in the army district, a lab. methods are important, especially at mass defeats by nuclear weapon. L. the army district it is intended to hl. obr. for carrying out a wedge, blood tests, urine, a calla during the rendering the qualified medical aid. In laboratories to lay down. institutions are carried out a lab. researches during the rendering the qualified and specialized medical aid, definition of blood groups and its Rhesus factor accessory, quantitative definition of sugar in blood, calculation of uniform elements of cerebrospinal liquid, etc., and also some biochemical, researches. Work of L. in field conditions is under construction on broad use unified a lab. techniques, especially express techniques which shall have rather high sensitivity and specificity, adequate accuracy and to be simple in performance, suitable for mass serial researches with a limited expenditure of time for production of this analysis.

The medical field chemical laboratory is intended for definition of infectiousness of OV of water, foodstuff, the soldier. - the medical equipment and property, weapon and so forth (see. Indication of weapons of destruction ).

Bacterial. L. it is intended for carrying out bacterial, and serol, researches in infectious field mobile hospital (see), etc.

Fig. 5. Mobile sanitary and epidemiologic laboratory (AL).

The sanitary and epidemiologic laboratory on the car provides performance a dignity. - a gigabyte., toksikol, researches in tests of the soil, water, air, foodstuff, etc., and also bacterial, and serol, researches for indication and diagnosis various inf. diseases. It is placed in the unified body on the chassis of the car (fig. 5). In a body rooms for a lab are equipped. researches and sterilizing and procuring operations. The possibility of carrying out all types of works out of a body in the adapted rooms is provided. These laboratories provide also indication and examination of radiocontamination of the soil, water, foodstuff, etc.

Bibliography: Garyaev G. R. and Lobanova N. S. About laboratory researches on PMP in field conditions, Voyen. - medical zhurn., No. 12, page 76, 1975; Mosquitoes F. I., Korovkin B. F. and Menshikov V. V. Biochemical researches in clinic, page 350, L., 1976, bibliogr.; Materials about a state and perspectives of development of laboratory clinicodiagnostic service in the country, M., 1977; Menshikovv. B. Scientific and technical progress and ways of increase in efficiency of laboratory service of treatment and prevention facilities, Laborat. business, No. 9, page 515, 1970; Men-sh and to about in V. V., etc. Indicators and tendencies of development of clinical laboratory diagnosis at the present stage, in the same place, No. 9, page 515, 1977; Morozova V. T. Urgent problems of laboratory service, Owls. zdravookhr., No. 8, page 16, 1975; Ways of improvement of activity of clinical diagnostic laboratories, under the editorship of V. V. Menshikov, M., 1976; Modern problems of development of laboratory business, under the editorship of V. V. Menshikov, M., 1973; Reference book on labor protection of workers of health care, sost. K. N. Valyaeva, page 126, M., 1975; Johnson A. P. Organization and management of hospital laboratories, L., 1969; Organisation des laboratoires, publ. par G. Siest, P., 1973.

B. V. Menshikov, V. T. Morozova; I. F. Bogoyavlensky (soldier.), A. A. Krasilnikov (paraz.), H. M. Ovchinnikov, (bakt.).