KUWAIT, the State of Kuwait — the state on the Arabian peninsula, on sowing. - zap. the coast of the Persian Gulf, and also on the coastal islands Bubiyan, Fay of a varnish, etc. The area is 20,2 thousand km 2 (1977). The population FROM one thousand people (1977). The capital of Al Kuwait (apprx. 750 thousand zhit. with suburbs; 1977). Administrative division — 3 governorships. Ofits. language — Arab.
To. — constitutional hereditary monarchy. Independence is declared in June, 1961. The head of state — the emir. The legislature belongs to the emir and National assembly, executive power — to the emir and Council of ministers.
The most part of the territory of the country — the plateau, places at the coast of the Persian Gulf passing into the boggy lowland. Climate — tropical deserts.
To. — developing country; one of the richest oil districts of the world and the largest supplier of oil. A primary branch of the industry — oil-extracting. Agriculture is developed poorly, a considerable part of food is imported.
Arabs make 90% of the population, of them only about a half — natives of Kuwait. Also Palestinians, Persians, natives of Pakistan and the countries of East Africa live. The most part of the population lives in the cities and working settlements.
The natural movement of the population, according to official figures, provided in editions of WHO, is presented in the table.
Table. VITAL RATES IN KUWAIT in 1969 — 1975 (on 1000 people)
Average life expectancy makes at men 66,1 and at women 71,8 (1970). In the country in 1975 the following inf was registered. diseases: measles, parotitis, inf. hepatitis, typhoid and paratyphus, bacillar dysentery, malaria, whooping cough, poliomyelitis, meningitis. In 1977 13 cases of cholera were registered; in comparison with 1974 growth of number of diseases of dysentery and inf is noted. hepatitis and nek-swarm decrease in incidence of malaria.
The main reasons for 4149 registered cases of death (1972) were: accidents (13,3%), birth trauma, hypoxia and other reasons of perinatal mortality (11,5%), bacillar dysentery, amebiasis, etc. (9,1%), rheumatic, hypertensive, ischemic and other heart troubles (8,6%), pneumonia (8,4%), malignant new growths (5,9%), flu (2,7%), diabetes mellitus (2,3%), etc.
The Ministry of Health To. bears responsibility for activity in the field of health care. It is divided into two managements — special and administrative. Special management consists from to lay down. department and department of preventive medicine. The department of preventive medicine deals with issues of school hygiene, public health care, occupational health, planning of a family, a dignity. educations, medical registration, statistics, directs work of infectious BCs and laboratory services, carries out quarantine actions. The department to lay down. medicine is responsible for work of out-patient clinics, BC, dental and physiotherapeutic surgeries, women's and children's consultations and services — pharmaceutical and forensic medicine. The country is divided into the 11th dignity. districts, 4 of which cover rural zones; rural districts are subdivided into 36 subdistricts, each of which has out-patient clinic. The medical administration of local authorities generally carries out a dignity. control of foodstuff and environmental control; she is not subordinated to the Ministry of Health. Medical aid in the country appears free of charge.
In 1975 in the country would be 34 on 4255 beds (4,3 beds for 1000 zhit.), including 26 state on 3740 beds and 8 private commercial BCs on 515 beds where the cost of treatment is paid by patients; 10 BCs of the general type, 15 medical centers in which hospitals on 124 beds, 3 maternity homes on 675 beds, 2 infectious-tsy on 231 beds, 2 tubercular on 669 beds, 1 psychiatric-tsa on 467 beds and 1-tsa for hron, sick are developed. In 1972 the St. 82 thousand persons was hospitalized. The largest to lay down. institutions of the country are «Emiri Hospitl» (570 beds) and «the Expert Sabah Hospitl» (780 beds); these institutions are research and training centers of health care To. (1974).
The extra hospital help in 1972 was carried out by 15 polyclinic departments of BC, 10 policlinics, 33 centers of health care, 6 out-patient clinics and 7 first-aid posts, 10 clinics for women and 8 points on health protection of the child worked. In 1972 were delivered generally by the doctor or the diplomaed midwife — in-tsakh and maternity homes it is accepted 32 597 and at home 5091 childbirth. In 1972 in To. there were 16 dental surgery out-patient clinics for school students and 29 — for adults. The name of healthcare institutions To. and the content of their work not fully correspond to the concepts accepted in the USSR (see. Treatment and prevention facilities abroad ).
In 1975 in the country 1089 doctors worked (1 doctor on 910 zhit.), 109 dentists, 364 druggists and apprx. 5000 nurses. There is a college of nurses with a 4-year course. At Kuwaiti un-those in 1976 it is created by medical f-t, accepted the first students.
Bibliography: Bodyansky V. L. Modern Kuwait, M., 1971; The Fifth review of a condition of health care in the world (1969 — 1972), page 324, Geneva, WHO, 1977; World Health Statistics Annual 1977, Y. 3, p. 33 and. lake, Geneva, 1977.
E. V. Galakhov.