KUSSMAULYA BREATH (A. Kussmaul, is mute. doctor, 1822 — 1902; synonym big kussmaulevsky breath) — one of types of pathological breath which is characterized by rare respiratory cycles, a deep noisy breath and the strengthened exhalation with active participation of expiratory muscles. Change of inspiratory and expiratory phases usually happens quickly; their duration can be various, the inspiratory phase is often extended, a respiratory pause always long.
Nature and mechanisms K. are found insufficiently out. Great value in emergence To. is given to acidosis, accumulation in an organism of toxicants, a hypoxia. Mechanisms K. connect with the changes of a functional condition of a respiratory center, loss of normal regulatory influences or inadequate reflex influences coming to a respiratory center from various receptors and from other departments of a brain.
To. arises usually at the patients with the broken consciousness who are in critical condition and, as a rule, demonstrates damage of a brain. To. it is typical for a diabetic coma, uraemia, an eclampsia; it is observed at a cerebral injury, a tumor of a brain, an apoplexy, and also at infectious or toxic damage of a brain.
To. along with so-called apneystichesky breath and gasping-breath quite often carry to terminal forms of breath, and sometimes to periodic breathing.
Therapeutic actions at emergence To. shall be urgent and depend on character of a basic disease.
See also Breath, pathology .
Bibliography: Bogolepov N. K. Comas, M., 1962, bibliogr.; The guide to pathological physiology, under the editorship of H. N of Sirotinina^t. 3, page 70, M., 1966; To u s s m an u 1, Zur Lehre vom Diabetes mellitus. Dtsch. Arch. klin. Med., Bd 14, S. 1, 1874.
H. I. Losev.