KUPALOV Pyotr Stepanovich (1888 — 1964) — the Soviet physiologist, the academician of AMH (1946), zasl. figure spiders of RSFSR (1943).
Ended VMA in 1915. Pupil and I. P. Pavlov's follower. In 1920 — 1923 the doctor of the fleet and the prosector of department of physiology Novorossiysk un-that. Since 1925 worked for I. P. Pavlov in Ying-those experimental medicine, and in 1937 — 1964 there was a manager. department of physiology of it in-that. At the same time in 1931 — 1952 of the prof. of department of physiology of the 1st Leningrad medical in-that of I. P. Pavlov. In 1928 — 1930 worked in London for A. Hill where investigated power of cross-striped muscles.
The main scientific works of P. S. Kupalov are devoted to questions of physiology and pathology of century of N of. It executed a cycle of researches on studying funkts, mosaics of bark of big hemispheres, funkts, structure and mechanisms of the organization of cortical excitement, genesis of cortical braking, and also the analysis of the mechanism of development of experimental neurosises in animals is carried out, the phenomena of a summatsionny explosibility, patol, irradiation of processes of braking are described. P. S.
Kupalov investigated analitikosintetichesky activity of a cerebral cortex in the conditions of free behavior of animals; established value of a steric factor in uslovnoreflektorny activity and developed idea of situational reflexes; showed participation of bark in implementation of unconditional reactions and value of its tone for uslovnoreflektorny activity, having entered a concept about the shortened conditional reflexes reactions creating defined funkts a state, a tone of bark. P. S. Kupalov expanded idea of tonic reflexes of a spinal cord, established to one of the first an adverse effect of ionizing radiation on a cerebral cortex. He improved a number of techniques of a research of century of N of, in particular developed the new equipment for the soundproof camera, new ways of objective registration of conditioned reflexes, offered a technique of a research of century of N of in the conditions of free behavior of animals. For researches of century of N of it is awarded the Gold medal of I. P. Pavlov with Academy of Sciences of the USSR (1957).
P. S. Kupalov was one of organizers and the responsible secretary of the 1st Vsesoyuzny of a congress of physiologists, the chairman Vsesoyuznogo about-va physiologists of I. P. Pavlov (since 1955), the chairman Leningrad about-va physiologists (1950 — 1964), the member of editorial boards
of the Bulletin of experimental biology and medicine, the Physiological magazine of the USSR and hl. the editor of the Magazine of higher nervous activity (1954 — 1964), the member of English about-va physiologists (1936). Consisted the editor of a redotdel «Physiology» in 2 prod. BME.
It is awarded by the Orders of Lenin, the Labour Red Banner and medals.
Works: About experimental neurosises at animals, Zhurn. vyssh. nervn. deyateln. t. 2, century 4, page 457, 1952; About influence of system of rhythmic conditioned reflexes on education and existence of a new conditioned reflex, Works fiziol. Laborat, of I. P. Pavlov, t. 5, page 370, M., 1954; The General results of studying of processes of braking in bark of big hemispheres, Zhurn. vyssh. nervn. deyateln., t. 5, century 2, page 156, 1955; Situational conditioned reflexes at dogs are normal also of pathology, L., 1964 (sovm, with other).
Bibliography: Danilov I. V., etc. Pyotr Stepanovich Kupalov, Zhurn. vyssh. nervn. deyateln., t. 15, century 2, page 195, 1965; Kvass D. G. and Fedorov Grotto A. K. Physiological school of I. P. Pavlov, page 150, L., 1967; Muravyeva N. P. Some pilot and theoretical studies P. C. Clump fishing of mechanisms of short circuit of temporary bonds, Zhurn. vyssh. nervn. deyateln., t. 23, century 6, page 1141, 1973.
E. L. Golubeva.