KULLEN William (Cullen William, 1712 — 1790) — the English doctor, the doctor of medicine (1740), professor (1751).
The general education was got in un-those by Glasgow, medical — in Edinburgh un-those. Had practical training in surgical college (Surgeon College) in Hamilton then worked as the rural doctor, then the surgeon in Hamilton. Since 1751 the prof. of medicine in Glasgow; since 1755 the prof. of chemistry in Edinburgh where in 1757 began to give lectures in English language instead of Latin. Since 1766 gave the general course of theoretical medicine (pathology). In 1773 headed department of physics, then it is elected the president of the Edinburgh college.
In the theoretical views U. Kullen rejected the humoral doctrine, inclined to positions of solidary pathology. Developed, proceeding from T. Villiziya's work, A. Galler's doctrine about irritability of muscles and sensitivity of nerves, and also from F. Goffmann's views about «tone» and «atony», the original theory about a condition of a nervous system as defining health or a disease. According to U. Kullen's doctrine, a disease are caused by the excess or insufficient movement of «nervous substance» («fluid») — «tension» («spasm») or, on the contrary, «relaxation» of a nervous system («atony»).
He rose against the «weakening» treatment accepted in its time, in particular against plentiful bloodlettings and laxatives, attached significance to the toning and strengthening means. Studying the gout extended at that time in England, U. Kullen explained it from positions of the doctrine as result of disturbance of the general nervous control. In the second half of 18 century U. Kullen's doctrine had big distribution not only in England, but also in many other countries. In Germany his translator and the popular writer was S. Hahnemann — the founder homeopathy (see). In France its doctrine exerted impact on F. B of Ruse. In the homeland the pupil and U. Kullen's successor who entered the known changes into his system, and by the end of life it is sharp criticizing it, there was the Scottish doctor J. Broun.
Works: Synopsis nosologiae methodicae, Edinburgh, 1772, 1814; First lines of the practice of physic, v. 1 — 4, Edinburgh, 1784, 1829; A treatise of the materia medica, Edinburgh, 1789; The works of Cullen containing his physiology, nosology and first lines of the practice of physic, with numerous extracts from his manuscript papers, and from his treatise of the materia medica, ed. by J. Thomson, v. 1 — 2, Edinburgh, 1827.
Bibliography: Lozinsky A. A. To history of some major medical systems of the 18th and 19th centuries, page 84, SPb., 1905; Biographisches Lexikon des hervor-ragenden Arzte, hrsg. v. A. Hirsch, Bd 2, S. 152, B. — Wien, 1930; Comrie J. D. History of scottish medicine, L., 1932; Thomson J. An account of the life, lectures and writings of William Cullen, Edinburgh, 1859.