KROG Augustus

From Big Medical Encyclopedia

KROG Augustus (Krogh August, 1874 — 1949) — the Danish physiologist, professor (1916), the member London royal about-va (1937), the Nobel Prize laureate (1920).

KROG Augustus

In 1899 ended un-t in Copenhagen, then worked as the assistant to department of physiology of medical school in Copenhagen. In 1903 protected dokt, the thesis on a subject about the mechanism of breath of frogs. In 1916 — 1945 of the prof. of zoophysiology in Copenhagen un-those.

The main scientific works of A. Kroga are devoted to questions of comparative physiology of breath and blood circulation, studying of a metabolism and physiology of muscular contractions, and also studying funkts, changes of a tone of capillaries and their value in a metabolism. He proved that exchange of gases between blood and air of lungs happens by simple diffusion of gases, and it refuted the theory of active secretion of gases in lungs. For these researches it was awarded by a medal of the Vienna academy of Sciences (1906). In 1912. A. Krog offered a method of determination of speed of a blood-groove in lungs of the person by definition of nitric oxide in blood after inhalation of this substance. This method with little changes is also nowadays standard during the studying of minute volume of heart. He established that fat is less effective source of muscular energy in comparison with carbohydrates.

A. Krog for the first time established anatomo-physiological features of a capillary wall in various bodies and showed value of microcirculation for a metabolism, having proved that degree of richness of a capillary network in an organism depends on intensity of fabric exchange. For opening of the mechanism of regulation of capillary reactions it was conferred the Nobel Prize.

He is the author of a number of devices (a lung-tester, farad-ergometr) and methods fiziol, researches (a mikrotonometriya, a differential manometriya).

Works: The respiratory exchange of animals and man, L., 1916; The anatomy and physiology of capillares, New Haven, 1922 (Russian lane, M., 1927); Osmotic regulation in aquatic animals, Cambridge, 1939; The comparative physiology of respiratory mechanisms, Philadelphia, 1941; The active and passive exchanges of inorganic ions through the surfaces of living cells and through living membranes generally, Proc, roy. Soc. Edinb. B, v. 133, p. 140, 1946.

Bibliography: August Krogh, Brit. med. J., v. 2, p. 879, 1949; Dejours P. August Krogh and the physiology of respiration, Scand. J. Resp. Dis., v. 6, p. 337, 1975.

E. L. Golubeva.