From Big Medical Encyclopedia

KRICHEVSKY Ilya Lvovich (1883-1943) — Soviet microbiologist and immunologist, doctor of medical sciences (1934), professor (1935), zasl. scientist of RSFSR (1934).


Ended in 1908 physical and mathematical f-t Kharkiv un-that and in 1911 medical f-t Moscow un-that, then worked as the assistant in Moscow bacteriological in-those of G. N. Gabrichevsky. Since 1918 served in Red Army. Since 1920 honey, schools worked at department of bacteriology of the Highest. In 1923 — 1934 the director Ying-that microbiology of the National commissariat of education of RSFSR. Since 1924 the department chair of microbiology of the 2nd MMI. At the same time was an editor-in-chief of the Magazine of microbiology, epidemiology and immunology and directed laboratory, and then department in chemical pharmaceutical in-those of S. Ordzhonikidze on testing of chemotherapeutic drugs.

The main researches of I. L. Krichevsky are devoted to development of problems of immunity, an allergy, chemotherapy. He studied a role of reticuloendothelial system in formation of immunity, in particular showed that switching off of function of reticuloendothelial system (a splenectomy, blockade by a tripanovy blue, etc.) causes sharp oppression of immunity and suppression of products of antibodies, and stimulation leads to strengthening of antibody formation; established dependence of efficiency of chemotherapy from funkts, conditions of reticuloendothelial system.

I. L. Krichevsky developed the original cellular theory of an acute anaphylaxis, in a cut is shown that process of an anaphylaxis is developed on a surface of cellular membranes.

Number of works of I. L. Krichevsky and it sotr. it is devoted to questions of studying of a group-specific differentiation of cells, fabrics and human organs it is normal also of pathology, comparative study of heterogeneous antigens of the person and animals, immunology of an embryogenesis, antigens of malignant tumors, and also to questions of studying of the mechanism of immunity of cells of smooth muscles to bacterial endo-and exotoxins.

It possesses a merit in creation together with chemists-organikami of a number of domestic chemotherapeutic drugs, their organizations biol, control. Many works of I. L. Krichevsky did not lose the relevance, and the scientific directions begun with it gained further development in sovr, immunology and microbiology.

I. L. Krichevsky is the author of the two-volume guide to microbiology inf. diseases of the person for doctors and students, and also the textbook of medical microbiology for medical higher education institutions which were repeatedly republished.

I. L. Krichevsky is considered the founder of school of the Soviet immunologists and microbiologists. Among his pupils academicians there is AMH H. N. Zhukov-Verezhnikov, P. N. Kosyakov, V.D. Solovyov, M. P. Chumakov and prof. A. T. Kravchenko, M. N. Lebedeva, K. I. Matveev, K. A. Fried, etc.

Works: About a section to the nature of an acute anaphylaxis, Works Mikrobiol, nauch. - issled. in-that Narkomprosa, t. 2, page 323, M. — L., 1926 (sovm, with Fried K. A.); Die gruppenspezifisclie Differenzierung der menschlichen Organe, Klin. Wschr., S. 2081, 1927; Identity of a biochemical differentiation of bodies of people, Works Mikrobiol, nauch. - issled, in-that Narkomprosa, t. 4, page 215, 229, M., 1928 (sovm, with Schwarzman L. A.); Microbiology of infectious diseases of the person, M. — L., 1930, 1934; About the unknown still functions of reticuloendothelial system, Works Mikrobiol, nauch. - issled, in-that Narkomprosa, t. 5, page 55, M., 1930 (sovm, with Fried K. A.); The textbook of medical microbiology, M. — L., 1936, 1937.

Bibliography: Birger O. G. and Kalyaev A. V. Course of life of the honored worker of sciences prof. I. L. Krichevsky, Zhurn, mikr., epid, and immun., Ha 8, page 120, 1964; Variability of microorganisms and immunity, under the editorship of V. D. Ti-makov, page 5, M., 1959; To about with I to about in P. N. Problems of an antigenic structure of organisms and I. L. Krichevsky's works, Zhurn, mikr., epid, and immun., No. 8, page 126, 1964; Kravchenko A. T. Value of works of I. L. Krichevsky in studying of the mechanism of artificial immunity and an allergy, in the same place, page 122, bibliogr.; F r and d e K. A. Achievements of the Soviet immunology, Usp. sovr, biol., t. 7, century 3, page 407, 1937.

A. T. Kravchenko, Yu. I. Milenushkin.