KOLLOIDOKLAZIYA (colloidoklasia; colloid[s] + grech, klasis change, dissecting; synonym: kolloidoklazis, kolloidoklazichesky shock) — disturbance of colloid balance of proteins of a blood plasma and fabrics, is a consequence of what reduction of their dispersion with the subsequent flocculation of colloid particles.
Mechanism K. it is connected with change of electric charges of colloids. A. A. The pilgrim (1937) and a number of authors explained with the phenomenon To. a pathogeny of hemotransfusionic shock, I. L. Krichevsky (1916), F. Vidal, A. Lumiere — an acute anaphylaxis; Abrami (P. Abrami, 1913) — gemoklazichesky crisis.
A. A. Bogomolets explained the stimulating effect of hemotransfusion with a kolloidoklaziya. He for the first time assumed that individual incompatibility of blood of the donor and recipient is not exhausted by isoantigenic distinctions of uniform elements of blood; incompatibility of homologous proteins matters also that finds the expression in their interaction and formation of the enlarged high-molecular proteinaceous complexes — flokkulyat (see. Flocculation ). Fermental disintegration of the formed flokkulyat is followed by formation of physiologically active agents, like the so-called trefona of A. Karrel or wound hormones of G. Haberlandt stimulating a metabolism, growth and reproduction of cells. One of components of therapeutic action of hemotransfusion is the effect of stimulation of life activity of an organism (see. Hemotransfusion ).
To. at acute anaphylaxis (see) develops owing to repeated impact on fabric colloids of a foreign protein (antigen); at the same time a principal value in development To. reaction of interaction of antigen and an antibody has (see. Antigen antibody reaction ). Plays the main role in a pathogeny of an acute anaphylaxis To., developing, according to one authors (A. A. Bogomolets), in cells, according to others (Lumiere, I. L. Krichevsky, etc.) — in blood.
Due to the role To. in development of acute and hemotransfusionic anaphylaxis the term «kolloidoklazichesky shock» is often used; A. A. Bogomolets identified the concepts «kolloidoklaziya» and «kolloidoklazichesky shock». At transfusion of compatible blood, according to A. A. Bogomolts, takes place poorly expressed To., or poorly expressed kolloidoklazichesky shock, as is shown by stimulation of life activity of an organism; at incompatible blood transfusion strongly expressed kolloidoklazichesky shock which is shown disturbance of the vital functions of an organism develops.
The known confirmation of a role To. experimental data of B. E. Movshev (1976) serve in the phenomena developing in the posttransfusion period. In experiences on dogs by method of a gelfiltration he studied chain-length distribution of proteins of plasma at recipients after transfusion of homologous blood. Continuous increase of high-polymeric fraction (M-fraction) in plasma of the recipient at reduction of fraction of albumine was shown and without essential changes of globulinovy fraction (G-fraction). Similar kolloidoklazichesky changes are observed in experiences of in vitro during the mixing of homologous serums. It is possible to assume that such changes are caused by genotypic heterogeneity of serum proteins.
Bibliography: The pilgrim A. A. Kolloidoklazichesky shock at hemotransfusion, Surgery, No. 3, page 3, 1937; M about fime in B. E. Change of protein fractions of serum at blood loss and the subsequent massive hemotransfusion, the Stalemate. fiziol, and Eksperim, rubbed., No. 4, page 73, 1976; The Guide to pathological physiology, under the editorship of. A. A. Bogomoltsa, t. 3, page 122, M. — L., 1936; Widal F., Abrami P. et BrissaudE. L’auto-anaphylaxie, Sem. med. (Paris), t. 33, p. 613, 1913; W i-d a 1 F. e. a. Les phenom^nes d’ordre anaphvlactique dans l’asthme, la cause hemoclasique initiale, Presse med., t. 22 * p. 525, 1914.
A. X. Kogan, H. A. Fedorov.