From Big Medical Encyclopedia

KITCHEN — the room for cooking. Word K. it is used also for designation of specific selection of dishes and ways of their preparation — napr, national To. (Russian, French, Georgian), children's, milk.

Depending on appointment To. are subdivided on room (for family and individual use) and public (at catering establishments). To. at the enterprises public catering (see) to destination and to kind of work are subdivided on billet, food preparation stations, distributing and using raw materials.

Billet To. are intended for production of semi-finished products and supply of food preparation stations with them To. and the shops trading in semi-finished products. Billet To. happen universal, processing several types of raw materials (meat, fish, vegetables), and specialized, processing one type of raw materials. In billet To. processes of roughing-out of raw materials in this connection here the high-mechanized billet workshops are provided prevail.

To. catering establishments are projected preferential as To. the food preparation stations working at semi-finished products. In food preparation stations To. need for workshops of roughing-out of raw materials disappears, and thus optimum conditions for maintenance optimum a dignity are created. the mode in a process of manufacture of food. The producing work rooms such To. workshops for preparation of hot and cold dishes, washing ware, distributing are. Product sales are enabled in the dining rooms organized at kitchen, and sometimes through separately located dining rooms from distributing K.

Razdatochnye K. gained big distribution at factories and the plants, in large institutions and other objects. In distributing To. the producing work rooms are the workshop of heating of hot dishes, the cold workshop, distributing, hleborezny, washing.

Have considerable distribution To. old type, using raw materials, i.e. with a complete production cycle. In such To. especially strict observance a dignity is necessary. the mode since in the course of work a large number of the waste contaminating the room and the equipment is formed there. The main dignity. requirements at the same time provide separate processing of products, use of separate stock and the equipment according to a type of a product, strict division of the movement of flows of raw materials, waste and finished products, timely removal of garbage. The main production rooms To., using raw materials, finishing workshops for processing of meat, fish, vegetable raw materials, certain workshops for preparation of hot, cold dishes p confectionery, washing ware, hleborezny, storerooms, inventory, refrigerators are.

The main requirements to production rooms and their design include compliance of the area and a cubic capacity of rooms of production capacity To., rationality of production bonds between workshops, sufficient illumination and their ventilation. The area such To. with number of seats to 50 it is projected at the rate of 1,3 m 2 on one seat, to 200 places — 1,1 m 2 and St. 200 places — 1,05 m 2 . The area of production rooms of food preparation stations To., working at semi-finished products, is calculated with a correction factor 0,8. Height of rooms To. there have to be not less than 3 m, and at placement To. in the building of other appointment — not less than 2,8. Height of rooms in cellars (storerooms, inventory, warehouses, etc.) there has to be not less than 2,5. In work rooms To. and in washing ware the design of a floor shall not have emptiness; floors shall be waterproof. Walls of production rooms To. revet with a tile or cover on height with 1,8 moisture resistant materials.

The general water consumption in To., using raw materials, it can be approximately defined at the rate of 18 — 25 l for one lunch or 8 l on one dish. A consumption of hot water (t ° 65 °) 4,5 — 5 l for one lunch or 1,5 l on a dish. In large To. catering establishments the internal production sewerage with installations for local processing of drain waters — zhiroulovitel, mezgosbornik, mud settlers is created. The last establish only in To. with a productivity of vegetable workshops of 2 t of vegetables and more in change.

To. catering establishments are provided forced-air and exhaust ventilation (see) with mechanical motivation and heating of an induced air. In the small enterprises with number of seats less than 100 the equipment of the exhaust ventilation without organized inflow is allowed. Rooms To. shall have transoms or window leaves. Heating, ventilation and conditioning are equipped according to settlement data of the operating construction norms and rules. Local ventilation over the heat-generating equipment in the form of umbrellas, veils and exhaust ring air ducts is applied to removal of a heat gain from hot rooms. For calculation of air exchange is accepted that temperature of the deleted air through ring air ducts is equal 42 °, and the amount of the air deleted through them makes 65% of total quantity of the deleted air. Relative humidity of air in cooking rooms and washing ware shall be within 60 — 70%, in the cooled rooms — 80 — 90%, in other rooms — 40 — 60%.

V K. optimal conditions of visibility are provided. In production rooms it is provided side or upper natural lighting (see). The light factor shall be not less than 1:6, coefficient of natural illumination not less than 1%. For artificial lighting lamps, water-proof and resistant to corrosion, with the protected lamps are installed. Artificial lighting in a workplace at filament lamps shall make not less than 75 lx, and at fluorescent lamps — 20 lx. For strengthening of illumination over jobs local lighting is arranged.

Modern To. catering establishments are supplied various tekhnol, the equipment, a cut it is subdivided into 4 groups: thermal, mechanical, nonmechanical and washing. The thermal equipment includes plates, coppers, confectionery cases, electro-frying pans, deep fryers, etc. In each finishing workshop — meat, fish, vegetable there has to be a set of the mechanical equipment which is built in in a production tekhnol, the line (cars for cleaning and the shredder of vegetables, meat grinders, sausage mincers, farshemeshalka, kotletodelatelny cars, etc.). The nonmechanical production equipment (tables, bathtubs, racks) are produced from the steady against corrosion easily purified materials (stainless steel). The equipment and stock (chopping boards, sets of knives) are assigned to certain workshops and shall have individual marking according to appointment. The washing equipment is generally presented by dishwashers of different brands.

At some productions it is required especially strict sanitary inspection (see) behind terms of processing and product sales. It belongs first of all to preparation of all types of forcemeat, the wiped dishes, jellied products, jellies, cold dishes used without the subsequent thermal treatment. Ready first and second courses shall be realized within 2 — 3 hour. The shelf-life of hot vegetable dishes shall not exceed 1 hour. Temperature of first courses shall be not lower than 75 °, second courses not lower than 65 °. Storage of food in thermoses is allowed no more than 3 hours (vegetable dishes not of St. 2 hours).

Left in To. food is subject to obligatory repeated thermal treatment before distribution.

The persons which are again arriving on catering establishments before employment are inspected on a carriage of causative agents of intestinal infections, a glistonositelstvo, tuberculosis and have the general therapeutic examination. The current inspection of workers on a bacteriocarrier, and also preventive inoculations are carried out at the scheduled time and on epid, to indications. Workers catering establishment shall study a dignity. at least according to the sixteen-hour program, and also time in two years to pass course classes in the program a dignity. a minimum (differentially for each specialty).

Fig. 1. The mobile kitchen the unified PKU-125.
Fig. 2. Internal equipment of kitchen PKS-2: 1 — a plate; 2 — a water-heating tank with a capacity of 60 l; 3 — the manual pump; 4 — a tank for water with a capacity of 180 l, 5 — a water-heating tank with a capacity of 25 l; 6 — an oven; 7 — a sink for washing of hands; 8 — a table case.
Fig. 3. The field kitchen-dining room of PKS-2 in a complex with tents: 1 — the two-axis trailer kitchen; 2 — a frame tent — the workshop of subsidiary appointment; 3 — a tent of USB-56 — the dining room; 4 — the platform for distribution of food.

Army kitchen or ship galley in parts of the Navy — the room (stationary army To.) or specially designed unit (marching, field To.) for cooking by the serviceman. Stationary army To. are projected as using raw materials, i.e. with a complete production cycle, and take place in the certain building (combined with the dining room). Production rooms according to requirements to the general K.

Osobennostyyu of work stationary army are planned and equipped To. cooking on all content strictly in at one time is. Cooking in two changes is in some cases allowed. Camp To. are used seasonally, not less than 100 m from bathrooms and other places of pollution are located in buildings of barrack-type or capital type in the second strip of the camp, between average and back rulers, at distance.

In field conditions are used marching To. various types, allowing to cook food and during the movement of troops. In the Russian army the first mobile kitchen was designed in 1866. During the Russian-Turkish war of 1877 — 1878 of the shelf of the Russian army already had marching To. on wheels. Further numerous types marching were developed To. on horse draft, and then on autodraft.

To modern marching To. it is possible to carry the unified kitchen — PKU-125 (fig. 1), allowing cooking from two dishes and boiled water (or compote), and also preparation of fried products.

The KPU-125 has three departments with coppers with a capacity of 58 l everyone. Besides, there is department with a copper for boiled water (on 150 l) and department with a plate for frying of products. Marching To. are expected food approximately the 100th persons.

The modern marching kitchen-dining room (PKS-2) is equipped in the covered body of the automobile two-axis trailer (fig. 2). The dining room and utility rooms are placed in special frame tents. The kitchen trailer has the device for connection with tents, forming uniform industrial complex (fig. 3) in the working position.

Bibliography: Hygiene of food, under the editorship of. K. S. Petrovsky, t. 1 — 2, M., 1971; Petrovsky K. S. Gigiyena of food, M., 1975; The Balanced diet of the military personnel, under the editorship of E. I. Goldberg, M., 1976.

K. S. Petrovsky.