**KAKOVSKOGO-ADDISA METHOD** (A. F. Kakovsky, to swell. doctor; Th. Addis, amer. the doctor, 1881 — 1949) — one of quantitative methods of microscopic examination of an urocheras consisting in definition of number of uniform elements of urine by means of a cytometer. In a wedge, practice usually apply less exact approximate method of microscopic studying of an urocheras.

To. — And. the m is more objective, than the microscopy of a deposit, is of great importance for diagnosis of initial, is hidden the proceeding forms of nephrite and pyelonephritis, for dynamic overseeing by patients and for control of efficiency of the carried-out treatment. It is offered in 1910

by A. F. Kakovsky. Addis in 1925 suggested to use a cytometer of a gemotsitometr for calculation.

## A technique of a research

Urine is collected for 10 — 12 hours (the patient urinates before going to bed, note time and collect urine after a dream for 10 — 12 hours). At women urine is collected by a catheter. Collected urine is carefully stirred and measure its quantity. For receiving a deposit take the amount of urine which is marked out in 12 min., a cut calculate by a formula:

And = V / (5t)

where And — amount of urine in 12 min., V — the volume of collected urine in milliliters, t — time (hours), for a cut collected urine (1/5 hours = 12 min.). The calculated amount of urine is placed in the graduated centrifugal test tube and centrifuged 5 min. at 2000 rpm. Suck away a pipette nadosadochny liquid, leaving 0,5 ml (500 mkl) draft. The deposit is stirred a pipette, then fill a cytometer of Goryaev. Consider separately leukocytes, erythrocytes and cylinders. Calculate number of cells in 1 mm^{ 3 } draft (X) on a formula:

X = H/0,9,

where H — number of cells in all camera, 0,9 — the volume of the camera of Goryaev in mm^{ 3 } . The received number is multiplied on 60 000 that makes number of cells in daily amount of urine (Y):

Y = (H*500*5*24)/0,9 = H*60000/0,9 = X*60000

Kakovsky's Number — Addis for normal urine: erythrocytes to 1 000 000, leukocytes to 2 000 000, cylinders to 20 000.

A version To. — And. m are Nechiporenko's method (definition of number of cells in 1 ml of urine) and Ambyurzhe's method (number of cells in the minute volume of urine).

See also Urine, methods of a research .

**Bibliography:** Kakovsky A. F. To a technique of notation of organized elements of urine, the Russian doctor, t. 9, No. 41, page 1444, 1910; Nechiporenko A. 3. About a technique of quantitative definition of uniform elements in urine and their value in diagnosis of chronic pyelonephritis, Urology, No. 4, page 43, 1961; it, Determination of quantity of leukocytes and erythrocytes in 1 ml. wet, Laborat, business, No. 2, page 121, 1969; Pytel A. Ya. and Goli-gor sky S. D. Elected heads of nephrology and urology, p.1, page 163, L., 1968; Addis T. Glomerular nephritis, N.Y., 1948, bibliogr.

*A. 3. Nechiporenko.*