JUICE FRUIT — the food drinks received by department and after-treatment of juice of fresh fruit, berries and nek-ry vegetables.
Depending on the maintenance of suspended particles of S. of the item divide on amyelenic (not clarified and clarified); juice with pulp; the so-called liquid fruits representing the homogenized fruit weight slightly diluted with sugar syrup; the concentrated or condensed juice; the juice dehydrated drying (see) or lyophilizing (see).
Villages of the item receive from mature high-quality fruits, to-rye previously crush, heat (blanch), sometimes subject to influence of fermental pectolytic drugs, electric current. The main way of extraction of juice is pressing. The extracted juice is settled or separated. At production of the clarified juice for removal of suspended particles juice processes fermental drugs, solutions of a tannin or gelatin. At production of juice with pulp and liquid fruits suspended particles do not delete. For improvement of tastes and aroma add sugar syrup to juice or mix juice of different fruits. Ready juice after deaerating will be pasteurized (see. Pasteurization ) or will sterilize.
On nutrition value of S. of the item approach the corresponding vegetables (see) and to fruit (see) and practically do not contain proteins and fats. Carbohydrates in juice are presented generally by glucose (see), fructose (see) and sucrose (see) in the ratios characteristic of initial fruits. Contents organic to - t in juice depends on a type of fruit and vegetables. So, in juice of a citrus contains preferential lemon to - that (in orange 1%, in lemon apprx. 5%), in grape and apple juice — wine and apple to - you, in the majority of juice contain in various ratios lemon and apple to - you, in juice of cowberry and a cranberry — in noticeable quantities (to 0,05%) the benzoic to - that.
Pages of the item are sources of mineral substances (see). Content of potassium (see) in apricot, grape, apple, carrot, tomato juice makes 200 — 300 mg / 100 of S. items play an important role in providing a diet with microelements: iron, copper, manganese, etc. (see Microelements). Unlike fruits in S. the item is less than cellulose (it almost completely remains in juice with pulp and liquid fruits), pectic substances, ascorbic to - you (for 25 — 50%). The known value in food the items which are contained in S. have polyphenols (anthocyans, tanning agents, etc.), the essential oils, fragrant substances defining S.'s aroma of the item. The feedstuffs which are contained in S. of the item are well acquired by an organism.
S.'s most of the item (apple, grape, citrus, etc.) are fiziol. irritants of gastric glands. Nek-rye S. items (crimson, cherry) slow down secretion of a gastric juice. Not divorced S. items oppress secretion of a pancreas, and the juice divorced water, on the contrary, strengthens department of pancreatic juice at simultaneous increase in it in trypsin, a lipase, amylase.
Freshly cooked S. of the item — a product unstable. Heat treatment of juice shall be minimum for preservation of useful and flavoring properties of fruits, but sufficient for destruction of yeast and bacteria. It is allowed to preserve the pages of the item intended for the subsequent industrial processing alcohol (10 — 25%), sulphurous anhydride (to 0,1%), sorbic to - that (to 0,06%). Tinned S. of the item can remain long vrekhmya (till 1 year) without essential changes (see. Conservation, foodstuff ). Negative influence on S.'s quality of the item is rendered by oxygen of air and light, defiant discolorations, taste, aroma. For the prevention of such changes of S. of the item it is recommended to package in a light-protective container, as much as possible using its volume or filling the free space with inert gas.
The main requirements to tinned S.' quality of the item are determined by GOST. The mass of nonvolatile solids (on a refraktomer) shall make in various juice not less than 8 — 14%, total acid (in terms of apple to - that) — to fluctuate in the limits defined for each type of juice, the content of alcohol is allowed no more than 0,3 — 0,5%, copper — no more than 5 mg/l, tin — no more than 100 mg! l (in the juice packaged in cans).
Fruit juice finds broad application in baby food. They are nice to the taste, increase appetite, are easily acquired by an organism of the child. Use of juice stimulates motility of intestines in food of the child, increases secretion of a gastric juice, enzymes of a pancreas and department of bile, keeps exchange processes at optimum level, provides an organism with mineral substances and vitaminakhm, promotes fuller digestion of the main food ingredients arriving with other food stuffs.
Inclusion of enough juice in a diet of the child from 3 — 4 week age plays a large role in prevention of rickets (see), hypotrophies (see), anemk (see), exudative diathesis (see. Exudative and catarral diathesis). From juice the first appoint apple, then since one and a half months — blackcurrant, cherry, since two months — plum, apricot, carrot, garnet, since three months — tomato, crimson, strawberry, orange, tangerine, lemon. At the use of separate types of juice the child can have an individual intolerance, edges is shown by skin rashes or increase of a chair. In such cases it is necessary to replace the juice which caused reaction with other type of juice. More often than others side effect juice of a citrus, and also strawberry therefore to children with exudative diathesis this juice is not appointed possesses. It is not recommended to give to children aged up to one year grape juice since it strengthens fermentation in intestines and causes a meteorism. Very acid and tart juice parts with boiled water and slightly sweetens with sugar syrup. Juice of cherry, garnet, blackcurrant, sweet cherry contain tanning agents and therefore work zakreplyayushche; they are useful to children with an unstable chair. With tendency to locks it is better for children to give plum, carrot or beet juice.
Enter juice into a diet of the child gradually, since several drops, and within 7 — 10 days increase amount of juice to 30 — 50 ml. The child receives such volume of juice to 5 — 6-month age. In the second half of the year of life the amount of juice gradually increases from 50 to 100 ml. Children at the age of 1 — 3 years can receive 100 — 150 ml of juice, and after 3 years — 200 ml.
Sanitary inspection (see) behind production and S.'s quality of the item includes control for a gigabyte. conditions of production, dignity. quality of the processed raw materials and finished goods (organoleptic properties, a copper content, tin, lead and other heavy metals). In raw materials define residual amounts of pesticides, to-rye shall not exceed the established M3 of the USSR of the maximum sizes.
Methods lab. control are established by the corresponding GOST and the official documents M3 of the USSR.
Bibliography: Beyul E. A. ides of river. Nutrition value of vegetables and fruit, M., 1972; Mazurin A. V. The manual on food of the healthy child, M., 1980; Samsonova A. N. and At sh e in and V. B. Fruit and vegetable juice, M. — Sofia, 1976; The Reference book on a children's dietetics, under the editorship of I. M. Vorontsov and A. V. Mazurin, JI., 1980; Studen and Kean M. Ya. and Ladodo K. S. Pitaniye of children of early age, JI., 1978; Fang-Jeong A. F., Flaumenbaumb. L. and Izotov of A. K. Tekhnologiya of conservation of fruits and vegetables, M., 1969; Chemical composition of foodstuff, under the editorship of A. A. Pokrovsky, M., 1976.
A. N. Zaytsev, K. S. Ladodo.