From Big Medical Encyclopedia

JUDICIAL CHEMISTRY (toxicological chemistry) — the section of forensic medicine and toxicology developing methods of a chemical research of material evidences for the purpose of qualitative and quantitative test in them toxic agents and key products of their metabolism.

Emergence and S.'s development x. it is caused by requirements of the investigation, court and forensic medicine (see). In creation of bases of domestic S. x. as sciences, its development and training of the special managements the big role belongs to A. A. Iovsky, A. P. Nelyubin, Yu. K. Trapp, A. P. Dianin, G. of JI. To Dragendorff. In S.'s development x. in the USSR the significant contribution was made A. V. Stepanov, JI. F. Ilyin, N. A. Valyashko, N. I. Krommer, M. D. Shvaykova.

The first in our country department of judicial chemistry was organized in 1920 by A. V. Stepanov on chemical and pharmaceutical f-those the 2nd MSU. The same year JI. F. Ilyin organized department of judicial chemistry at Petrograd chemical and pharmaceutical in-those. In a crust, time teaching judicial (toxicological) chemistry is conducted at departments of pharmaceutical in-t and pharmaceutical f-tov medical higher education institutions.

Scientific research according to S. x. are conducted in scientific research institute of forensic medicine M3 of the USSR, at departments and courses current-sikol. chemistry of pharmaceutical and medical higher education institutions, separate works are performed in court. - medical laboratories of the country. The main directions of scientific research according to S. x. — studying of transformations of poisons in a human body, preservation or their transformation in cadaveric material taking into account influence on these processes various ekzo-and internal causes, development of techniques of definition of the connections having a toksi-stake. value. Special attention at the same time is paid to theoretical justification of ways of isolation from cadaveric material of toxic compounds, to development of the general and private schemes of a research, ways of purification of the emitted poisons of the accompanying extractives, studying of a keeping of poisons in cadaveric material.

Use of judicial and chemical knowledge at permission of the questions raised by the investigation, court or court. - the medical expert, the court makes contents. - chemical examinations material evidences (see). Objects of a research most often are internals of corpses, biol. liquids (blood, urine, saliva, cerebrospinal liquid), bones, hair, nails, and also other objects, both people around of the person, and being products of his life activity. Result court. - chemical researches substantially depends on a right choice of objects. Depending on the nature of material evidences and the questions raised before examination, court. - chemical examination is conditionally subdivided on chemical and toxicological, carried out to bureau court. - medical examinations of bodies of health care, and chemical and criminalistic, carried out in criminalistic institutions.

Feature court. - chemical examinations need you divisions (isolation) from big weight biol is. substrate of rather small amount of toxic agent and its metabolites. For this purpose apply distillation by means of water vapor, a mineralization of organic matters, extraction acidified by ethanol or water, dialysis and electrodialysis, preparative chromatography. For purification of poisons and their metabolites of the accompanying organic compounds use extraction and hromatografichesky techniques, and for detection and quantitative definition of the emitted poison — a combination highly sensitive and specific chemical and physical. - chemical reactions, biol. tests. At court. - chemical examination of material evidences use of only well studied techniques and ways of a research is allowed.

Resolved court. - chemical examination questions are very various, but are most often connected with establishment of possible poisoning (see). At a research of the remains of food or drinks expertize is carried out with tselyo establishments in them substances, poisonous for a human body, and their quantitative definition. At a research of pharmaceuticals and their remains establish compliance to their requirements of the State Pharmacopoeia of the USSR and the specifications and technical documentation, existence or absence in them toxic connections. At a research of other objects the issues concerning establishment of existence and quantitative contents in them the poisonous and strongly active ingredients able under certain conditions are generally resolved to cause intoxication of a human body.

With ud. - chemical examination the experts-chemists having the higher pharmaceutical education and who received specialization in judicial (toxicological) chemistry on the basis of resolutions of bodies of inquiry or investigation, court or the directions carry out court. - medical experts. Order of production examinations (see) the court is provided criminal procedure and civil and procedural by codes, instruktivnometodichesky indications of the main thing. - the medical expert of M3 of the USSR.

See also Toxicology ; Poisonings, in the medicolegal relation .

Bibliography: Rubtsov A. F. and Khodasevich A. G1. Judicial chemistry, Index of domestic literature (1917 — 1977), Riga, 1980; Stepanov A. V. Judicial chemistry (toxicological analysis) and definition of professional poisons, M., 1951; Shvaykova M. D. Domestic guides and textbooks to judicial chemistry, Aptech. business, t. 5, No. 2, page 35, 1956; it, Judicial chemistry, M., 1965; it, Toxicological chemistry, M., 1975; Autenrieth W. and. In and and e of To. N of Die Auffindung der Gifte und starkwirkenden Arzneistoffe, Dresden — Lpz., 1943; Curry A. S. Poison detection in human organs, Springfield, 1969; it, Advances in forensic and clinical toxicology, Cleveland, 1972; Isolation and identification of drugs in pharmaceuticals, ed. by E. G. C. Clarke, v. 1—2, L., 1969 — 1975; Mac Nally W. D. Toxicology, Chicago, 1937; Methods of forensic science, ed. by A. S. Curry, v. 3—4, N. Y. — L., 1964 — 1965; Muller R. K. Die toxikologiseh-chemische Analyse, Dresden, 1976; Progress in chemical toxicology, ed. by A. Stolman, v. 1—4, N. Y. — L., 1963 — 1969; Toxicology, mechanisms and analytical methods, ed. by C. P. Stewart a. A. Stolman, v. 1—2, N. Y., 1960 — 1961.

A. F. Rubtsov.