JAVAL Louie (Javal Louis Emile, 1839 — 1907) — the French ophthalmologist, the member of National academy of medicine (1884).
At the age of 23 years graduated from the Higher mountain school and gained the diploma of the mining engineer. Following the old inclination, systematically studied medicine and in 1868 on medical f-those Parisian un-that defended the dissertation on degree of the doctor of medicine on a subject: «About squint in its annexes to the theory of sight», it is awarded for it by a silver medal. Since 1878 the director Ophthalmolum, laboratories of Sorbonne, and since 1900 her honorary director (after the blindness which came from glaucoma).
L. Zhaval published apprx. 160 scientific works devoted to methods of a research of visual acuity, a refraction of an eye, short-sightedness, questions of an astigmatism, a research and treatment of squint by conservative methods. He fairly considered that squint, in addition to disturbance of functions of the motive device of an eye, is connected with anomaly of solid vision. Proceeding from it, for treatment of squint he offered exercises in a fuziya (binocular merge) of images by means of a stereoscope. In 1867 he designed the device astigmometr, and in 1881 together with dates. the scientist H. Schiotz — oftalmometr for determination of the refracting force of a cornea in any meridian of an eyeglobe.
Being already blind, L. Zhaval published the book «Between Blind People» (1903), in a cut stated a number of a valuable advice for the blind people who are growing blind and persons, them people around. This book was translated into several foreign languages.
Works: Du strabisme dans ses applications a la physiologie de la vision, P., 1868; Memoires d’Ophtalmometrie, P., 1890 — 1891; Manuel theoretique et pratique du strabisme, P., 1895; Physiologie de la lecture et de l’eecriture, P., 1905.
Bibliography: S u 1 z e of, Javal, Ann. Oculist. (Paris), t. 137, p. 177, 1907; Tscherning A., L. E. Javal, Klin. Mbl. Augenheilk., Bd 45, S. 375, 1907.
A. I. Bogoslovsky.