From Big Medical Encyclopedia

JASPERS Karl (Jaspers Karl, 1883 — 1969) is the German psychiatrist-psychopathologist and the philosopher.

Got a medical education in high fur boots of Berlin, Goettingen and Heidelberg. Since 1908 the assistant to psychiatric clinic in Heidelberg. In 1909 protected dokt. the thesis on the subject «Homesickness and Crime»; since 1913 the associate professor philosophical f-that, since 1916 about a fessor of psychology, and since 1921 professor of philosophy Heidelberg un-that. In 1933 K. Jaspers was removed by Nazis from all posts held by it in un-those g and in 1937 is discharged of teaching activity, to a cut returned only in 1945. From 1948 to 1961 K. Jaspers is professor of philosophy Basel un-that.

K. Jaspers's works in the field of psychiatry are inseparably linked with his philosophical views. He developed a phenomenological method of studying of mental disorders, the basis to-rogo was made by the direct description, differentiation, definition and systematization of subjective experiences mentally sick. This method found the reflection already in the early psychiatric studies of K. Jaspers — in it dokt. theses, in the works devoted to nonsense of jealousy and differentiation of the concepts «pathological development of the personality» (the concept entered by K. Jaspers) and «process» (1910), and especially in work «Phenomenological approach in psychopathology» (1912). He demanded strict review and exact definition of the concepts used in psychopathology on the basis of the description and the analysis of the valid experiences mentally sick. Proving the method, K. Jaspers relied on «evident empiricism», davavshiyg in his opinion, an opportunity by means of «vchuvstvovaniye» and «understanding» to estimate introspection mentally of the patients who are in his opinion, objective reflection of their consciousness. K. Jaspers described many psychopathological frustration and the theoretical views in the book «General Psychopathology» (1913). It published also works in which the analysis of creativity of A. Strindberg of N

of W. Van Gogh in psychiatric aspect is given.

K. Jaspers's researches in the field of psychopathology promoted specification of psychiatric terminology, expansion of knowledge in the field of semiotics of mental diseases, in particular a sindromologiya * to clarification of psychiatry from remnants of psychological metaphysics.

After World War II K. Jaspers published the philosophical researches «About the Truth» (1947), «A problem of fault» (1948), «Great philosophers» (1957), «Philosophical belief and a revelation» (1962), in to-rykh raised the sensitive and topical public and political questions. In the philosophical views he was a subjective idealist and considered that the essence of human existence is not learned.

In the book «Where Germany Moves» (1966) he accused ruling numbers of the country of incitement of revanchism and hatred to the countries of socialism. He emphasized a thought of need of preservation of peace around the world.

Works: Heimweh und Verbrechen, Heidelberg, 1909; Allgemeine Psychopathologie, 1-e prod., V., 1913, 9 prod., 1973; Psychologie der Weltanschauungen, V., 1925; Die geis-tige Situation der Zeit, B. — Lpz., 1931, 1932; Philosophie, Bd 1—3, B., 1932, 1948; Descartes und die Philosophie, B. — Lpz., 1937, B., 1956; Einfiihrung in die Philosophie,

2nd prod., Zurich, 1950, 17 prod., Munchen, 1976; Aneignung und Polemik, gesammelte Reden und Aufsatze zur Geschichte der Philosophie, Munchen, 1968; Where Germany moves? the lane with it., M., 1969.


Gottschalk H. Karl Jaspers, V., 1966; Karl Jaspers, hrsg. at. P. A. Schilpp, Stuttgart, 1957; S a n e r H * Karl Jaspers in Selbstzeugnissen und Bilddo-kumenten, Hamburg,

1970, H. G. Shumsky.