JAMAICA — the state located on the island of the same name and adjacent small islands in the Caribbean Sea. The area is 11,4 thousand sq.km. The population apprx. 2,2 million people (1984). The capital and the main port — Kingston (apprx. 800 thousand people, 1980). In the administrative relation I. it is divided into 3 counties, to-rye consist of 14 districts. Ofits. language — English.
Jamaica is discovered by Columbus in 1494. To the middle of 17 century was possession of Spain, in 1670 passed to Great Britain as its colony. In 1962 independence is declared. The country is included into the Commonwealth. The head of state — the English queen, to-ruyu represents the governor general. Legislature — the parliament consisting of the House of Representatives and the senate.
Most part of the territory I. occupies the calcareous plateau. The climate is tropical passatny. Hurricanes are characteristic.
I. — agrarian and industrial country. Agriculture specializes in production of a sugarcane, bananas, coffee, cocoa beans, citrus, tobacco. In 1979 18,1% of agricultural products were exported. I. it is rich with minerals (bauxites, copper, iron ore, lead, cobalt, gypsum); takes the third place in the capitalist world on bauxite mining. There are enterprises of the woodworking, textile and food industry. An important role in economy is played by foreign tourism.
The main population (St. 90%) — yamayets (hl. obr. Blacks and mulattos), white make 5%, Indians —
apprx. 3,5%, Chinese — 1,5%. More than a half of the population lives in rural areas. Vital rates, according to the estimated data provided by WHO in 1980 — 1984 made (on 1000 inhabitants): birth rate 26,3, general mortality 6,4, natural increase 19,9; child mortality (in 1983) 24,0 on 1000 live-born. The average duration of the forthcoming life for men — 69 years, for women — 73,5 years.
In 1979 in the country 145 cases of tuberculosis, 62 infectious hepatitises (in 1977 — 48 cases), the 24th bacillar dysentery (in 1977 — 48 cases), 104 leprosies, 92 typhoids (in 1977 — 65 cases), the 247th flu (in 1977 — 95 cases), the 82nd measles (in 1977 — 49 cases), the 37th whooping cough (in 1977 — 56 cases), 9 diphtherias were registered (in 1977 — 35 cases). In the country malaria and poliomyelitis are liquidated. Diseases, sexually transmitted (in 1977 29 789 registered cases), and diseases of an oral cavity are eurysynusic. Among causes of death in 1971 the leading place was taken by a hypertension and heart troubles (16,4%), vascular damages of a brain (15,2%), new growths (11,0%). Flu and diseases of a respiratory organs made 9,7%, infectious and parasitic diseases — 8,6% among all causes of death.
Management of health care is performed by the Ministry of Health and control of the environment consisting of 2 main departments — health services and health services. Parish councils participate in the management of local health services. On places an organizational functional unit of system primary medical - a dignity. the help the region of health care formed on geographical and demographic signs is. Within each such area the centers of health care servicing up to 20 thousand work zhit.
In implementation of a number of programs in health care help given I is widely used. international organizations (World Health Organization, Children's fund, etc.).
In 1979 in the country there were 30 medical institutions on 7648 beds (35,4 beds on 10 000 population), from them 23-tsy the general type (3640 beds), 1 maternity home (159 beds), 1 pediatric-tsa (260 beds), 1 oncological-tsa (52 beds), 1 tubercular-tsa (232 beds), 1 psychiatric-tsa (3000 beds), 1-tsa for treatment of alcoholics (120 beds) and 1 leper colony (185 beds).
Extra hospital help is given in the public and private institutions. Service of families by private doctors practices. Name and content of work of healthcare institutions I. not completely correspond to the concepts accepted in the USSR (see Treatment and prevention facilities abroad).
In recent years government I. pays to questions of providing the population with high-quality drinking water much attention. For coordination of activity in this area the national commission on providing the population with high-quality drinking water working in contact with the Ministry of Health and control of the environment is created.
According to WHO data, in 1979 in the country 759 doctors (3,5 for 10 000 population), 87 dentists, 151 druggists, 24 physiotherapists, 9 food specialists, 3915 midwifes and nurses, 197 laboratory assistants and X-ray technicians, 1 sanitary engineer, 487 inspectors of health care worked. Training of doctors is carried out at medical faculty of University of West Indies in Kingston. The program of postdegree specialization of doctors is entered. Due to the shortage of stomatologists the auxiliary school which is annually letting out 20 sisters stomatologists is created. In 1976 the first release (26 people) of physiotherapeutic school took place.
Bibliography: World health statistics annual 1984, Geneva, 1984; World health statistics annual 1980 — 1981, Infectious diseases, p. 27, Geneva, 1981. A. M. Rakcheev.