JACOB François

From Big Medical Encyclopedia

JACOB François (Jacob Francois, sort. in 1920) — the French biologist, the geneticist, the doctor of science (1954), professor, the Nobel Prize laureate (1965).

In 1946 ended medical f-t Parisian un-that. Since 1950 in Pasterovskom in-those (Paris) the assistant to laboratory of genetics of a cell, since 1956 the manager. laboratory, since 1960 the head of department of genetics of a cell. Since 1965 the prof. of department of genetics of a cell in the College de Frans.

The main works of F. Jacob are devoted to genetics of bacteria and viruses. It revealed genetic bases lysogenies (see) and mechanism of immunity of a lysogenic bacterium; explained bases of conjugation of bacteria, opened a ring structure of a chromosome of colibacillus and constructed its genetic map [together with E. Wollman, 1955]; developed the concept in 1961 episomes (see), being of great importance for a research of cancer. Together with Mono (J. Monod) assumed that DNA of genes is transcribed in information RNA; in 1961 opened the phenomenon of regulation in operation of genes of colibacillus, made a hypothesis operon (see) also gave genetically reasonable model of its structure. For researches of mechanisms of regulation of proteinaceous synthesis at bacteria F. Jacob was conferred the Nobel Prize (together with Mono).

In 1963 they S. Brenner made a hypothesis of replicon (see. Replication ).

F. Jacob consists honourable doctor Chikagsky un-that (1965), the foreign member of the Danish royal academy of literature and sciences (1962), the American academy of arts and sciences (1964), National academy of Sciences of the USA (1969), London royal about-va (1973), Belgian royal about-va (1973).

In 1940 — 1944 was at war in de Gaulle's army. The commodore of an award of the Honourable Legion, the winner of an award of Sh. Maier (1962) is awarded by the Cross of Release.

Works: The relationship between the prophage and the bacterial chromosome in lysogenic bacteria, in book: Recent Progr. Microbiol., ed. by G. Tuneval, p. 15, Oxford, 1959 (sovm, with Wollman E. L., Genetic regulatory mechanisms in the synthesis of proteins, J. molec. Biol., v. 3, p. 318, 1961 (sovm, with Monod J.); Sexuality and the genetics of bacteria, N. Y. — L., 1961 (sovm. with Wollman E. L., Russian lane, M., 1962).

A. P. Fedotov.