From Big Medical Encyclopedia

ISOLATION CHAMBER — the cabin (camera) equipped with devices and devices for a research of dynamics of mental and physiological functions in the conditions of isolation which is densely closed, soundproof (soundproofing), sound muffled. In the 20th 20 century of an isolation chamber were called surdoakustichesky cameras and hl were used. obr. for acoustic researches (see. Acoustics ). In 1925 in Leningrad in All-Union in-those experimental medicine according to I. P. Pavlov's proposal the soundproofed «tower of silence» was constructed, in a cut conditioned reflexes were studied. For these purposes further similar constructions were created also in other scientific research institutes. Full isolation from external sounds in the camera did not manage to be achieved (high-precision sound ranging devices registered in it an insignificant noise background), however the comparative silence allowed to conduct researches on bioacoustics and to study features of formation conditioned reflexes (see). In the 60th S.'s use considerably extends, they begin to be applied to studying psikhofiziol. characteristics of an organism. They are replenished with the special equipment providing carrying out fiziol. researches with the help telemetry (see).

In S. check changes of attention, memory, thinking, speed of response, health of the person who is in the camera; at the same time a certain mode of alternation of the periods of the total silence (i.e. lack of external irritants) and the periods of impact on the examinee by various signals — a sound, light, vibration is created, etc. S. allows to create also conditions to a so-called touch deprivation when the person loses necessary information. Reactions of inspected are fixed by devices, to-rymi S. — the electrocardiograph is equipped (see. Elektrokardiografiya ), the electroencephalograph (see. Encephalography ), devices for a research of memory, attention, speed of reaction (the device like Adaptron), sensitivity, and also devices of infrared observation, etc. The doctors studying fiziol. reactions of inspected, can observe reaction of the examinee on devices or visually at any time. The page allows to imitate nek-ry conditions of long or short-term space flight (individual or group, depending on structure of the crew which is in S.) that is widely used at selection and training of astronauts, and also at nek-ry psikhofiziol. researches. Registration fiziol. characteristics by means of the telemetric equipment, use unfamiliar and not expected inspected the program of a research including different influence by irritants is allowed to study fiziol. changes in an organism and reaction inspected in the conditions close to extreme.

V. I. Belkevich.