INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY (IAEA) — the organization created for the purpose of development of the international cooperation in peaceful use of atomic energy. It is created according to the decision of the UN of December 3, 1955, about a cut it is connected by the special agreement. At the end of 1972 103 states, including all states having nuclear weapon (except for 'China) were members of IAEA.
The structure of IAEA is defined by the charter approved at the International conference in New York in October, 1956. Governing bodies of IAEA — the General conference of all member countries and Board of governors from 25 people, and administrative body — the International secretariat headed by the CEO. The general conference gathers once a year and considers the annual report submitted by Board of governors. The conference makes the decisions by a majority vote, except for financial questions, amendments to the charter and questions connected with deprivation of membership, demanding the majority in 2/z voices. Board of governors sits several times a year. Change of structure of Council happens annually. The headquarters of IAEA — in Vienna.
The first General conference of IAEA took place in Vienna in October, 1957, and the organization formally began the existence with this date. The charter demands that IAEA «carried out the activity according to the purposes and the principles of the United Nations directed to strengthening of the world and encouragement of the international cooperation...». IAEA annually submits reports to the United Nations General Assembly and Economic and Social council, and also actively cooperates with specialized institutions, the regional and economic commissions of the United Nations and with Scientific UN committee on action of atomic radiation.
IAEA carries out a lot of work on training, exchange and distribution of scientific and technical information by holding the international conferences, symposiums, scientific meetings on various questions of peaceful use of atomic energy. The organization publishes works of scientific meetings, reviews on the most important and topical issues of nuclear science, technology, radiation medicine, radiobiology and radiation safety; publishes the international reference books and bibliographies on various technical issues (use of radioactive nuclides in medicine and agriculture, investigation of nuclear raw materials, nuclear fuel production, creation of technical means and measures of protection from ionizing radiation), concerning electronics, nuclear technology, metallurgy, a design of reactors, radiochemistry, radiobiology, nuclear physics; gives help to developing countries.
IAEA made norms and developed measures of radiation safety and protection during the performance of various types nuclear tekhnol. processes, and also the guide to safe handling of radioactive materials, the rule of safe transportation of radioactive materials and removal of radioactive waste and on many others to questions, important for practical application of atomic energy. Work of IAEA on preparation of standards of radioactive sources, calibration of the nek-ry nuclear equipment, the analysis of nuclear materials and development of standard procedures for the treatment of them is of great importance.
The big contribution to work of IAEA at all stages of formation was made by the Soviet Union. From the moment of creation of IAEA the Soviet Union, being one of founders of this international organization, takes active part in its activity, in every possible way promoting performance of the tasks facing IAEA. The Soviet Union spoke at all four international conferences on peaceful use of atomic energy as the country organizer. Representatives of the USSR and the Soviet scientists constantly take part in work of IAEA at all levels of this organization and in all its actions, meetings of experts, conferences, symposiums, seminars. The Soviet Union within IAEA gives big help to developing countries.
Bibliography: Petrosyants And, M. Modern problems of atomic science and technology in the USSR, M., 1976.
Yu. I. Moskalyov.