From Big Medical Encyclopedia

INSTITUTES OF IMPROVEMENT OF DOCTORS — the higher educational institutions intended for specialization and improvement of professional knowledge of medics with the higher education. Enter uniform state system of training, along with f-tami improvements and specializations of doctors (pharmacists) at medical (pharm.) in-ta and high fur boots, and also advanced training courses and specializations at medical (pharm.) in-ta, research establishments and large healthcare institutions.

The specified system is integrally connected with other systems of training of health care: internship (see), a wedge, an internship (see. Internship clinical ), a postgraduate study (see. Postgraduate study, graduate military course ), which have character of postdegree preparation.

The system of improvement and specialization of doctors developed in Russia where the direction (business trips) of doctors for work widely practiced in clinics and laboratories of the leading scientists of Russia and Europe. In 1885 for the first time in the history of medical education in St. Petersburg at the initiative of the prof. E. E. Eykhvald the wedge, in-t of improvement of doctors was open, in Krom from 1885 to 1917 St. 9900 doctors improved skills. Since 1847 in medicochirurgical academy in St. Petersburg improvement of medical officers was carried out. These institutions rallied around themselves the advanced scientists of that time. However these educational institutions could not resolve a problem of professional development of doctors in the country, but, certainly, played a positive role in creation of a new form of professional development of doctors.

After Great October socialist revolution the uniform state system of professional development of doctors (pharmacists) was created on brand new bases. In the first years of the Soviet power in the country a row I opens. at. century: in Kiev (1918), Odessa and Kazan (1920), Kharkiv (1923), Novosibirsk (1927). The state system of professional development of medical shots created in the country those years provided hl. obr. improvement of general practitioners, doctors of rural sites.

Along with creation And. at. century in 1920 — 1930 advanced training courses at research in-ta in Moscow, Leningrad and some other the large centers began to be organized.

In the organization of system of improvement of doctors the resolution of Council of People's Commissars of RSFSR (1927) «About scientific business trips of doctors» had a big role. The material security of the doctors directed to improvement was provided in it.

Development of network of healthcare institutions in the country, the intensive growth of number of medical shots demanded further expansion of system of improvement and specialization of doctors.

In 1930 in Moscow it was created Central institute of improvement of doctors (see) which became further educational metodicheskmm the M3 center of the USSR. In the next years are created And. at. century in Minsk (1931), Tashkent (1932), Tbilisi (1935), Baku (1935). In 1941 in the USSR there was 11 I. at. century. The further regulation of an order of improvement of doctors in the country belongs to this period. Frequency of professional development for the doctors working at the village and in the remote areas of 1 times in 3 years was provided in the resolution of the Central Election Commission of the USSR (1934) «About training of doctors».

In the period of the Great Patriotic War And. at. century for needs of the front and back carried out huge work on specialization and improvement of doctors. Apprx. 20 thousand doctors from evakogospitaly had in them special training.

In post-war years are recovered And. at. are created new in-you in Alma-Ata and Yerevan century which material resources suffered in the years of war. Since 1955 improvements and specializations of doctors (pharmacists) are created f-you at medical and pharm, in-ta. By 1970 the uniform system of specialization and improvement of professional knowledge of medics was created and further improvement of postdegree preparation of medical shots continued, the power of II considerably increased. at. century.

In system of the Soviet health care 13 I functions. at. century and 26 f-tov at medical and pharm, in-ta in which annually increases the professional level of St. 56 thousand medics with the higher education (according to 1975).

After introduction of an internship And. at. were substantially exempted from functions of primary specialization in the main wide profiles century that the number of the doctors undergoing improvement or secondary specialization, especially on narrow specialties allowed to increase. The number of the doctors and pharmacists studying in in-ta and on f-takh improvements of doctors in 1975 in comparison with 1965 increased for 62%.

By the resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR «About measures for further improvement of national health care» (1977) for further professional development of doctors and pharmacists it is solved at least 1 time in 5 years to direct them in And. at. century and on f-you improvements and specializations at medical and pharm, in-ta. In this regard the network of these institutions considerably extends.

In total And. at. have a wedge century, the base equipped with the modern equipment, the equipment, manuals, their departments are developed in large specialized departments of city, regional BCs and profile research in-ta.

And. at. are large scientific centers of the country century. Research — an integral part of activity of everyone in-that, f-that, departments.

Research activity of departments and laboratories I. at. increases the level of pedagogical process century, promotes bystry implementation in practice of results of scientific research.

And. at. century MZ USSR are directly subordinated that allows to concentrate in one or several And. at. century preparation on separate specialties or disciplines (radiology, hygiene and toxicology of chemical substances, gerontology and geriatrics, allergology, medical genetics and Dr + to expand interrepublican exchange of cadets for the purpose of comprehensive exchange of the best practices.

The main form of specialization and improvement in And. at. century and on f-takh improvements of doctors and pharmacists complex preparation is, edges it is carried out on cycles of specialization lasting 3 — 5 months and where the specialist doctor acquires high standard of knowledge, the skills demanded for work in a position; the general improvement lasting 2 — 4 months intended preferential for the specialists working in a rural regional link of health care; thematic improvement on a wide range of profiles lasting up to 2 — 3 months.

On And. at. century, f-you improvements and research in-you are also assigned a duty to give practical help to the healthcare institutions which are carrying out professional development of medical structure (courses of information and a training) according to the provision on professional development of doctors and pharmacists on local bases (see. Medical education ).

Bibliography: Gorfin D. V. Improvement of doctors in the USSR, Owls. medical, No. 14-15, page 84, 1938; Ermakov V. V. and Savchenko M. G. Institutes of improvement of doctors and their role in specialization and improvement of medical shots in the USSR, in the same place, No. 6, page 68, 1955; Kovrigina M. D. and Kasatkin Yu. N. Postdegree education of doctors in the USSR, Owls. zdravookhr., No. 11, page 40, 1977; To at r and sh about in S. V. O of specialization and improvement of doctors, Klin, medical, t. 32, No. 1, page 3, 1954; With and in - the p e of N to about M. G. Sketches of development of system of professional development of medical shots to the USSR, Chisinau, 1967, bibliogr.

O. M. Hromchenko.